Levisunguis subaequalis n. g., n. sp., a tongue worm (Pentastomida: Porocephalida: Sebekidae) infecting softshell turtles, Apalone spp. (Testudines: Trionychidae) in the southeastern United States
- 194 Downloads
A new tongue worm (Pentastomida) belonging to the Sebekidae Sambon, 1922 (Porocephaloidea Sambon, 1922) is described based on exemplars collected from softshell terrapins Apalone spinifera aspera (Agassiz) and Apalone ferox (Schneider) in the southeastern United States; a new genus is erected to accommodate the new species. The new species belongs in the Sebekidae because adults possess four simple hooks arranged in a trapezoid pattern on the ventral surface of the cephalothorax, a mouth opening between the anterior and posterior pairs of hooks, a terminal anus, an elongated uterus with preanal uterine pore, and a Y-shaped seminal vesicle. Nymphs possess geminate hooks, and the new species has an aquatic life-cycle in which nymphs become encapsulated in the body cavity of a freshwater fish and mature in the lungs of a terrapin. The new genus is distinct from other genera in the Sebekidae primarily by differences in hook morphology and the fact that representatives use a terrapin as a definitive host. Nymphs infecting fish and presumed to be the new species matured as postlarval juveniles conspecific with the new species when they were fed to the eastern mud turtle, Kinosternon subrubrum (Lacépède). Nymphs of the new species are anatomically similar to but larger than nymphs of Sebekia mississippiensis Overstreet, Self & Vliet, 1985 found in the mesentery of fishes captured in Florida, U.S.A. Adults of the new species differ from those of S. mississippiensis based on hook features, chloride cell pore pattern on annuli, body size, and use of a turtle rather than crocodilian definitive host. The new species is the third North American member of the Sebekidae.
KeywordsDefinitive Host Chloride Cell Accessory Piece Hook Length Oral Cadre
We are grateful to Scott D. Snyder (University of Nebraska at Omaha) for capturing the type host and collecting some of the type material, to Garry W. Foster (University of Florida) for providing us with material from Florida, U.S.A., and to William F. Font (Southeastern Louisiana University) for assisting with collections of nymphs. We also thank Kim Lamey and Marie Mullen for producing histological samples, and Eric E. Pulis for advice related to production of the manuscript (all from The University of Southern Mississippi). This material is based on work supported by the United States Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration award no. NA08NOS4730322, and by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service/Mississippi Department of Marine Resources MSCIAP MS.R.789 Award M10AF20151.
- Anonymous. (2002) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Organization Guidebook (2nd edition). Applied Research Ethics National Association, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. http://www.iacuc.org.
- Christoffersen, M. L., & De Assis, J. E. (2013). A systematic monograph of the recent Pentastomida, with a compilation of their hosts. Zoologische Mededelingen, 87, 1–206.Google Scholar
- Fain, A. (1961). Les pentastomides de l’Afrique centrale. Annales de Musée Royale d l’Afrique Centrale, Série 8, 92, 1–115.Google Scholar
- Foster, G. W., Kinsella, J. M., Moler, P. E., Johnson, L. M., & Forrester, D. J. (1998). Parasites of Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) from southern Florida. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 65, 62–64.Google Scholar
- Giglioli, G. (1922). The new genus Alofia of the family Linguatulidae. An anatomical account of A. ginae. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 25, 371–377.Google Scholar
- Heymons, R. (1935). Pentastomida. In: H. G. Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Vol. 5. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, pp. 1–268.Google Scholar
- Overstreet, R. M., Self, J. T., & Vliet, K. A. (1985). The pentastomid Sebekia mississippiensis sp. n. in the American alligator and other hosts. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 52, 266–277.Google Scholar
- Riley, J. (1994). A revision of the genus Alofia Giglioli, 1922 and a description of a new monotypic genus, Selfia: two genera of pentastomid parasites (Porocephalida: Sebekidae) inhabiting the bronchioles of the marine crocodile Crocodylus porosus and other crocodilians. Systematic Parasitology, 29, 23–41.Google Scholar
- Riley, J., & Huchzermeyer, F. W. (1995b). Pentastomid parasites of the family Sebekidae Fain, 1961 in West African dwarf crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis Cope, 1851 from the Congo, with a description of Alofia parva n. sp. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 151–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Riley, J., & Huchzermeyer, F. W. (1996). A reassessment of the pentastomid genus Leiperia Sambon, 1922, with a description of a new species from both the Indopacific crocodile Crocodylus porosus and Johnston’s crocodile C. johnstoni (sic) in Australia. Systematic Parasitology, 34, 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sambon, L. W. (1922). A synopsis of the family Linguatulidae. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 25(188–206), 391–428.Google Scholar
- Self, J. T., & Rego, A. A. (1985). Reassesment and revisions of certain genera and species of the family Sebekidae (Pentastomida) including description of Sebekia microhamus n. sp. Systematic Parasitology, 7, 33–41.Google Scholar
- Storch, V. (1993). Pentastomida. In: Harrison, F. W., & Rice, M. E. (Eds) Microscopic anatomy of invertebrates, 12, Onychophora, Chilopoda, and lesser Protostomata. New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 115–142.Google Scholar
- Venard, C. E., & Bangham, R. V. (1941). Sebekia oxycephala (Pentastomida) from Florida fishes and some notes on the morphology of the larvae. Ohio Journal of Science, 41, 23–28.Google Scholar