Why robots can’t haka: skilled performance and embodied knowledge in the Māori haka

Abstract

To investigate the unique kinds of mentality involved in skilled performance, this paper explores the performance ecology of the Māori haka, a ritual form of song and dance of the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand. We respond to a recent proposal to program robots to perform a haka as ‘cultural preservationists’ for ‘intangible cultural heritage’. This ‘Robot Māori Haka’ proposal raises questions about the nature of skill and the transmission of embodied knowledge; about the cognitive and affective experiences cultivated in indigenous practices like haka; and about the role of robots in the archival aspirations of human societies. Reproducing haka, we suggest, requires more than copying physical actions; preserving the ‘intangible’ entails more than programming postures and movements. To make this case, we discuss the history of European responses to the haka, and analyse its diverse performance features in cultural context. Arguing that indigenous movement practices incorporate genuinely embodied knowledge, we claim that skilled performance of haka is deeply mindful, embodying and transmitting dynamic, culturally shared understandings of the natural and social world. The indigenous psychologies incorporated in haka performance are animated by a shared history integrated with its environment. Examining haka performance through the lens of 4E cognitive skill theory for mutual benefit, we discuss the effects of synchrony in collective action, the social and environmental scaffolding of affect and emotion, and the multilayered relations between past and present. Culturally-embedded systems of skilled movement like the Māori haka may, we suggest, constitute specific ways of thinking and feeling.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Code availability

Not applicable.

Notes

  1. 1.

    For accessible, introductory videos on Haka see: https://youtu.be/vpG53BhLDGw and https://youtu.be/UuXA8fZHYYA.

  2. 2.

    The robot haka can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mf8PmRgOsvU.

  3. 3.

    The bodies of actual robots of course have unique histories which carry specific information about their past. A richer robotics might embrace hardware damage, adaptive compensation, or reused parts as aids both in theorising particularity in robots’ behavioural styles, and in assisting robots better to track their own histories (Chella 2019).

  4. 4.

    One of the authors, McArthur Mingon, is conducting fieldwork with Kapa Haka groups in Sydney, Australia, to explore these integrated features of Māori cultural practices in further detail.

  5. 5.

    There is no inevitable or determining relation between theory of mind and political action (Sutton and Tribble 2012). Yet particular Western assumptions about body and mind, moral development, propriety, and cognitive discipline animated both the perceptions and the judgements of haka by early European visitors and settlers. Brendan Hokowhitu (2014) quotes a number of striking examples. On Cook’s third voyage, Thomas Edgar wrote of the Māori ‘war dance’ which ‘consists of a variety of violent motions and hideous contortions of the limbs. There is something in them so uncommonly savage and terrible, their eyes appear to be starting from their head, their tongue hanging down to their chin’ (in Hokowhitu 2014, p. 279). And in 1867, the Wellington Independent lamented that ‘Forty years of civilization ought to have taught these people decency, but scrape a Māori, the most civilised, and the savage shows distinctly underneath. The “Haka” is an expose of the evil which lies at the root of their present prostrate condition, an exhibition of the utter immorality, depravity, and obscenity, which forms the ground work of their race… we shall do nothing until we alter their entire character, by taking in hand the education, per force, of the young growing saplings’ (in Hokowhitu 2014, pp. 281–282). In Sect. 5 below we discuss a haka performance by high school students in the streets of Christchurch after the 2019 terror attacks on the Muslim community, a powerful counter to such a chilling colonial threat.

  6. 6.

    The famous ‘Ka mate’ haka, for example, was originally composed as a ngeri, a “short haka to stiffen the sinews” and “to summon up the blood”. Ngeri are unlike haka taparahi (ceremonial haka) in that they do not have set actions, “thereby giving the performers free rein to express themselves as they deem appropriate” (Kāretu 1993, p. 41). This, incidentally, renders moot the ‘Robot Māori Haka’ programmers’ laborious decomposition of”each movement of Haka” so as to move the robot repeatedly “into the required posture and then recording the joints’ positions in the software” (Ser et al. 2016, p. 549) in order to “accurately preserve the original movements of the (Ka mate) Haka and teach it to new generations of New Zealanders and interested parties” (Sandoval et al. 2016, p. 512).

  7. 7.

    Video ‘Students remembering mosque shooting victims’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HO_2ES4deY8. The Tahu Potiki haka, named for the ancestor of the local iwi (tribe) Ngai Tahu, had also been used widely in Christchurch in the wake of the destructive 2011 earthquakes in which 185 people died.

  8. 8.

    An example can be seen here, in the video “In memory of Jarom Hadley Nathaniel Rihari. Haka 'Tau Ka Tau'.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdkC8hRoyj4.

  9. 9.

    Examples of popular choreographed dances which robots have been programmed to ‘perform’ include, ‘Single ladies’ by Beyoncé https://youtu.be/vgEFC8Eb6i4 and ‘Gangnam Style’ by Psy https://youtu.be/51vQo-imc4Q.

References

  1. Armstrong, A. (1964). Māori games and hakas: Instructions, words, and actions. Wellington: AH & AW Reed.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Awatere, A. (1975). Review of Mitcalfe (1974), Maori poetry: The singing word. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 84(4), 510–519.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2012). Group affect: Its influence on individual and group outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 119–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721412438352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bennett, A., & Eglash, R. (2013). Cultural robotics: On the intersections of identity and autonomy in people and machines. Revista Teknokultura, 10(2), 327–350. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_TK.2013.v10.n2.48254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Best, E. (1974). The Māori as he was: A brief account of Māori life as it was in pre-European days (Rev). Wellington: Government Printer.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Booth, W. J. (2006). Communities of memory: On witness, identity, and justice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Brawer, J., Hill, A., Livingston, K., Aaron, E., Bongard, J., & Long, J. H. (2017). Epigenetic operators and the evolution of physically embodied robots. Frontiers in Robotics and AI. https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2017.00001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Campbell, S. (2014). Our faithfulness to the past: The ethics and politics of memory. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Casey, E. S. (2000). Remembering: A phenomenological study. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Chella, A. (2019). Rilkean memories and the self of a robot. Philosophies, 4(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/philosophies4020020.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Clark, A. (1997). Being there: Putting brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Clément, V. (2017). Dancing bodies and Indigenous ontology: What does the haka reveal about the Māori relationship with the Earth? Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 42(2), 317–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cohen, E. E., Ejsmond-Frey, R., Knight, N., & Dunbar, R. I. (2010). Rowers’ high: Behavioural synchrony is correlated with elevated pain thresholds. Biology Letters, 6(1), 106–108. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0670.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Colombetti, G., & Krueger, J. (2015). Scaffoldings of the affective mind. Philosophical Psychology, 28(8), 1157–1176. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2014.976334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Colombetti, G., & Roberts, T. (2015). Extending the extended mind: The case for extended affectivity. Philosophical Studies, 172(5), 1243–1263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-014-0347-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Daniel, Y. (2005). Dancing wisdom: Embodied knowledge in Haitian vodou, Cuban yoruba, and Bahian candomblé. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. De Jaegher, H. (2019). Loving and knowing: Reflections for an engaged epistemology. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11097-019-09634-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Donald, M. (1991). Origins of the modern mind: Three stages in the evolution of culture and cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Downey, G. (2005). Learning capoeira: Lessons in cunning from an Afro-Brazilian art. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  21. D’Urville, D. (1950). New Zealand 1826–1827: From the French of Durmont D’UrvilleAn english translation of the voyage de l Astrolabe in NZ waters (O. Wright, Ed.). Wellington: Wingfield Press.

  22. Earle, A. (1832). A narrative of nine months' residence in New Zealand in 1827: Together with a journal of residence in Tristan D'Acunha. London: Longman Rees.

  23. Ehrenreich, B. (2007). Dancing in the streets: A history of collective joy. New York: Metropolitan Books.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Fessler, D. M. T., & Holbrook, C. (2016). Synchronized behavior increases assessments of the formidability and cohesion of coalitions. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37(6), 502–509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.05.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Fischer, R., Callander, R., Reddish, P., & Bulbulia, J. (2013). How do rituals affect cooperation? An experimental field study comparing nine ritual types. Human Nature, 24(2), 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-013-9167-y.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Gemeinboeck, P. (2019). Dancing with the nonhuman. In J. Bennett & M. Zournazi (Eds.), Thinking in the world. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organization of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 8–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.09.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Griffiths, P., & Scarantino, A. (2009). Emotions in the wild. In P. Robbins & M. Aydede (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition (pp. 437–453). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hanks, W. F. (1991). Foreword. In J. Lave & E. Wenger (Eds.), Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation (pp. 13–24). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Hapeta, J., Palmer, F., & Kuroda, Y. (2018). Ka Mate: A commodity to trade or taonga to treasure? MAI Journal: A New Zealand Journal of Indigenous Scholarship. https://doi.org/10.20507/maijournal.2018.7.2.5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Henare, M. (2001). Tapu, Mana, Mauri, Hau, Wairua. In J. A. Grim (Ed.), Indigenous traditions and ecology: The interbeing of cosmology and community (pp. 197–221). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Hokowhitu, B. (2009). Māori rugby and subversion: Creativity, domestication, oppression and decolonization. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 26(16), 2314–2334. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523360903457023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hokowhitu, B. (2014). Haka: Colonized physicality, body-logic, and embodied sovereignty. In L. Graham & G. Penny (Eds.), Performing indigeneity: Global histories and contemporary experiences (pp. 273–304). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hove, M. J., & Risen, J. L. (2009). It’s all in the timing: Interpersonal synchrony increases affiliation. Social Cognition, 27(6), 949–960.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hufendiek, R. (2020). Emotions, habits, and skills: Action-oriented bodily responses and social affordances. In I. Testa & F. Caruana (Eds.), Habits: Pragmatist approaches from cognitive neurosciences to social sciences (pp. 100–119). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Hutchins, E. (2010). Cognitive ecology. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2(4), 705–715. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2010.01089.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Hyland, N. (2015). Beyoncé’s response (eh?): Feeling the ihi of spontaneous haka performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand. TDR/The Drama Review, 59(1), 67–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Hyland, N. (2019). The message is Māori: The politics of Haka in performance. In P. Eckersall & H. Graham (Eds.), The Routledge companion to theatre and politics (pp. 257–260). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Ingold, T. (2000). The perception of the environment: Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Jackson, S. J., & Hokowhitu, B. (2002). Sport, tribes, and technology: The New Zealand All Blacks’ haka and the politics of identity. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 26(2), 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193723502262002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ka’ai-Mahuta, R. (2012). The use of digital technology in the preservation of Māori song. Te Kaharoa. https://doi.org/10.24135/tekaharoa.v5i1.98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kāretu, T. (1993). Haka: The dance of noble people. Auckland: Reed.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Kelly, L. (2015). Knowledge and power in prehistoric societies: Orality, memory and the transmission of culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Konvalinka, I., Xygalatas, D., Bulbulia, J., Schjødt, U., Jegindø, E.-M., Wallot, S., & Roepstorff, A. (2011). Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(20), 8514–8519. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1016955108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Krueger, J. (2014). Emotions and the social niche. In C. von Scheve & M. Salmela (Eds.), Collective emotions: Perspectives from psychology, philosophy, and sociology (pp. 156–171). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Krueger, J. (2015). Musicing, materiality, and the emotional niche. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 14(3), 43–62.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Krueger, J. (2016). Extended mind and religious cognition. In N. K. Clements (Ed.), Religion: Mental religion (pp. 237–254). Famington Hills: Macmillan Reference USA.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Lakens, D. (2010). Movement synchrony and perceived entitativity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(5), 701–708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.03.015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Lakens, D., & Stel, M. (2011). If they move in sync, they must feel in sync: Movement synchrony leads to attributions of rapport and entitativity. Social Cognition, 29(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2011.29.1.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Lara, B., Astorga, D., Mendoza-Bock, E., Pardo, M., Escobar, E., & Ciria, A. (2018). Embodied cognitive robotics and the learning of sensorimotor schemes. Adaptive Behavior, 26(5), 225–238. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059712318780679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Legare, C. H. (2019). The development of cumulative cultural learning. Annual Review of Developmental Psychology, 1, 119–147. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. MacDonald, S., Uesiliana, K., & Hayne, H. (2000). Cross-cultural and gender differences in childhood amnesia. Memory, 8, 365–376. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210050156822.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Macrae, C. N., Duffy, O. K., Miles, L. K., & Lawrence, J. (2008). A case of hand waving: Action synchrony and person perception. Cognition, 109(1), 152–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Matthews, N. (2004). The physicality of Māori message transmission—Ko te tinana, he waka tuku kōrero. Junctures: The Journal for Thematic Dialogue, (3), 9–18. Retrieved from https://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/handle/10523/5157.

  56. Mazer, S. (2011). Performing Māori: Kapa Haka on the stage and on the ground. Popular Entertainment Studies, 2(1), 41–53. Retrieved from https://novaojs.newcastle.edu.au/ojs/index.php/pes/article/view/44/30.

  57. McGeer, V. (2018). Intelligent capacities. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 118(3), 4–29. https://doi.org/10.1093/arisoc/aoy017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. McKay, J. (2013). ‘We didn’t want to do a dial-a-haka’: Performing New Zealand nationhood in Turkey. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 18(2), 117–135. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2013.846229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. McNeill, W. H. (1997). Keeping together in time: Dance and drill in human history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  60. McRae, J. (2017). Māori oral tradition: He Kōrero nō te Ao Tawhito. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Menary, R. (2007). Cognitive integration: Mind and cognition unbounded. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Miles, L. K., Nind, L. K., & Macrae, C. N. (2009). The rhythm of rapport: Interpersonal synchrony and social perception. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(3), 585–589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Mogan, R., Fischer, R., & Bulbulia, J. A. (2017). To be in synchrony or not? A meta-analysis of synchrony’s effects on behavior, perception, cognition and affect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 72, 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2017.03.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Moorfield, J., Ka’ai, T., & Ka’ai-Mahuta, R. (Eds.). (2013). Kia Rōnaki: The Māori Performing Arts (1st ed.). Auckland: Pearson New Zealand.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Newen, A., De Bruin, L., & Gallagher, S. (Eds.). (2018). The Oxford handbook of 4E cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Palmer, F. R. (2017). Stories of Haka and women’s rugby in Aotearoa New Zealand: Weaving identities and ideologies together. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 33(17), 2169–2184. https://doi.org/10.1080/09523367.2017.1330263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Pihama, L., Tipene, J., & Skipper, H. (2014). Nga Hua a Tane Rore: The benefits of kapa haka. (Report). Wellington: Manatū Taonga, Ministry for Culture and Heritage. https://hdl.handle.net/10289/12603.

  68. Prescott, T. J., Camilleri, D., Martinez-Hernandez, U., Damianou, A., & Lawrence, N. D. (2019). Memory and mental time travel in humans and social robots. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 374(1771), 20180025. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0025.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Reddish, P., Fischer, R., & Bulbulia, J. (2013). Let’s dance together: Synchrony, shared intentionality and cooperation. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e71182. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Reese, E., & Neha, T. (2015). Let’s korero (talk): The practice and functions of reminiscing among mothers and children in Māori families. Memory, 23(1), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2014.929705.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Rudhru, O., Ser, Q. M., & Sandoval, E. (2016). Robot Māori Haka: Robots as cultural preservationists. In The eleventh ACM/IEEE international conference on human robot interaction (p. 569). Christchurch, New Zealand: IEEE Press. https://doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2016.7451860.

  72. Salmond, A. (2012). Ontological quarrels: Indigeneity, exclusion and citizenship in a relational world. Anthropological Theory, 12(2), 115–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1463499612454119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Salmond, A. (2017). Tears of Rangi: Experiments across worlds. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Sandoval, E. B., Rudhru, O., & Ser, Q. M. (2016). The birth of a new discipline: Robotology. A first robotologist study over a robot Māori Haka. In The eleventh ACM/IEEE international conference on human robot interaction, (pp. 511–512). Christchurch, New Zealand: IEEE Press. https://doi.org/10.1109/HRI.2016.7451831.

  75. Schmidt, R. C., Fitzpatrick, P., Caron, R., & Mergeche, J. (2011). Understanding social motor coordination. Human Movement Science, 30(5), 834–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Ser, Q. M., Rudhru, O., & Sandoval, E. B. (2016). Robot Māori haka. In The eleventh ACM/IEEE international conference on human robot interaction (p. 549). Christchurch, New Zealand: IEEE Press. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1835-9310.2000.tb00049.x/epdf.

  77. Simon, H. (2015). Me haka I te haka a Tānerore? Māori ‘post-war culture and the place of haka in commemoration at Gallipoli. Australasian Canadian Studies, 32(1–2), 83–137. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/lhapapers/2971/.

  78. Slaby, J. (2016). Mind invasion: Situated affectivity and the corporate life hack. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 266. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Smith, L. T. (2012). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples (2nd ed.). London: Zed Books.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Smith, V. (2017). Energizing everyday practices through the indigenous spirituality of haka. Journal of Occupational Science, 24(1), 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2017.1280838.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Sterelny, K. (2012). The evolved apprentice: How evolution made humans unique. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Sullivan, P., Gagnon, M., Gammage, K., & Peters, S. (2015). Is the effect of behavioral synchrony on cooperative behavior mediated by pain threshold? Journal of Social Psychology, 155(6), 650–660. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2015.1071766.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Sullivan, P., & Rickers, K. (2013). The effect of behavioral synchrony in groups of teammates and strangers. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(3), 286–291. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2013.750139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Sutton, J. (2007). Batting, habit and memory: The embodied mind and the nature of skill. Sport in Society, 10(5), 763–786. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430430701442462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Sutton, J. (2015). Remembering as public practice: Wittgenstein, memory, and distributed cognitive ecologies. In D. Moyal-Sharrock, A. Coliva, & V. Munz (Eds.), Mind, language, and action: Proceedings of the 36th international Wittgenstein symposium (pp. 409–443). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  86. Sutton, J. (2018). Shared remembering and distributed affect: Varieties of psychological interdependence. In K. Michaelian, D. Debus, & D. Perrin (Eds.), New directions in the philosophy of memory (pp. 181–199). London: Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Sutton, J., & Keene, N. (2017). Cognitive history and material culture. In C. Richardson, T. Hamling, & D. Gaimster (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of material culture in early modern Europe (pp. 46–58). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Sutton, J., & Tribble, E. B. (2012). Materialists are not merchants of vanishing. In Early modern culture: An electronic seminar, 9.

  89. Sutton, J., & Williamson, K. (2014). Embodied remembering. In L. Shaprio (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of embodied cognition (pp. 315–325). Abingdon: Taylor and Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315775845.

  90. Sweetman, L. E., & Zemke, K. (2019). Claiming Ka Mate: Māori cultural property and the nation’s stake. In F. Gunderson, R. C. Lancefield, & B. Woods (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of musical repatriation (pp. 700–722). Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190659806.013.38.

  91. Tamminen, K. A., Palmateer, T. M., Denton, M., Sabiston, C., Crocker, P. R. E., Eys, M., & Smith, B. (2016). Exploring emotions as social phenomena among Canadian varsity athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 27, 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Tarr, B., Launay, J., Cohen, E., & Dunbar, R. (2015). Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding. Biology Letters. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0767.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Taylor, D. (2003). The archive and the repertoire: Performing cultural memory in the Americas. Durham: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Turetzky, P. (2002). Rhythm: Assemblage and event. Strategies, 15(1), 54–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1040213022012788.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. (2018). Basic texts of the 2003 convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. France: UNESCO.

    Google Scholar 

  96. von Scheve, C., & Salmela, M. (Eds.). (2014). Collective emotions: Perspectives from psychology, philosophy, and sociology. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659180.001.0001.

  97. von Zimmermann, J., & Richardson, D. C. (2016). Verbal synchrony and action dynamics in large groups. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02034.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Waitoki, W., Dudgeon, P., & Nikora, L. W. (2018). Indigenous psychology in Aotearoa/New Zealand and Australia. In S. Fernando & R. Moodley (Eds.), Global psychologies: Mental health and the global South (pp. 163–184). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Wenger, E. (2010). Communities of practice and social learning systems: The career of a concept. In C. Blackmore (Ed.), Social learning systems and communities of practice (pp. 179–198). London: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Williams, J. (2016). Do no harm: The extended mind model and the problem of delayed damage. Sophia, 55(1), 71–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11841-016-0515-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Ziemke, T. (2016). The body of knowledge: On the role of the living body in grounding embodied cognition. BioSystems, 148, 4–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2016.08.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to Kath Bicknell, Greg Downey and the Cognitive Ecologies Lab, Alexander Gillett and the CAVE Culture and Cognition reading group, Eduardo Sandoval, and Christine Williams.

Funding

This research was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Project ‘Cognitive Ecologies: a philosophical study of collaborative embodied skills’, awarded to John Sutton. Part of the research was supported by a Macquarie University Research Training Program Scholarship awarded to McArthur Mingon.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to McArthur Mingon.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The Authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest, or competing interests, present in this work.

Availability of data and material

Not Applicable.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mingon, M., Sutton, J. Why robots can’t haka: skilled performance and embodied knowledge in the Māori haka. Synthese (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-020-02981-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Embodied cognition
  • Indigenous psychology
  • Distributed affect
  • Synchrony