, Volume 196, Issue 8, pp 3001–3028 | Cite as

The variety-of-evidence thesis: a Bayesian exploration of its surprising failures

  • François ClaveauEmail author
  • Olivier Grenier
S.I.: Evidence Amalgamation in the Sciences


Diversity of evidence is widely claimed to be crucial for evidence amalgamation to have distinctive epistemic merits. Bayesian epistemologists capture this idea in the variety-of-evidence thesis: ceteris paribus, the strength of confirmation of a hypothesis by an evidential set increases with the diversity of the evidential elements in that set. Yet, formal exploration of this thesis has shown that it fails to be generally true. This article demonstrates that the thesis fails in even more circumstances than recent results would lead us to expect. Most importantly, it can fail whatever the chance that the evidential sources are unreliable. Our results hold for two types of degrees of variety: reliability independence and testable aspect independence. We conclude that the variety-of-evidence thesis can, at best, be interpreted as an exception-prone rule of thumb.


Evidence amalgamation Bayesian epistemology Evidence variety Evidence independence Robustness Triangulation 


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département de philosophie et d’éthique appliquée, Faculté des lettres et sciences humainesUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

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