pp 1–28 | Cite as

Collective mental time travel: remembering the past and imagining the future together

  • Kourken MichaelianEmail author
  • John Sutton
S.I. : Groups


Bringing research on collective memory together with research on episodic future thought, Szpunar and Szpunar (Mem Stud 9(4):376–389, 2016) have recently developed the concept of collective future thought. Individual memory and individual future thought are increasingly seen as two forms of individual mental time travel, and it is natural to see collective memory and collective future thought as forms of collective mental time travel. But how seriously should the notion of collective mental time travel be taken? This article argues that, while collective mental time travel is disanalogous in important respects to individual mental time travel, the concept of collective mental time travel nevertheless provides a useful means of organizing existing findings, while also suggesting promising directions for future research.


Memory Episodic future thought Mental time travel Collective memory Collective future thought Collective intentionality Intentional stance 


  1. Anastasio, T. J., Ehrenberger, K. A., Watson, P., & Zhang, W. (2012). Individual and collective memory consolidation: Analogous processes on different levels. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Assmann, J. (1995). Collective memory and cultural identity. New German Critique, 65, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baier, A. (1997). Doing things with others: The mental commons. In L. Alanen, S. Heinämaa, & T. Wallgren (Eds.), Commonality and particularity in ethics (pp. 15–44). New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barash, J. A. (2017). Collective memory. In S. Bernecker & K. Michaelian (Eds.), Routledge handbook of philosophy of memory (pp. 255–267). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Barnier, A. J., Sutton, J., Harris, C. B., & Wilson, R. A. (2008). A conceptual and empirical framework for the social distribution of cognition: The case of memory. Cognitive Systems Research, 9(12), 33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basden, B. H., Basden, D. R., Bryner, S., & Thomas, R. L. (1997). A comparison of group and individual remembering: Does collaboration disrupt retrieval strategies? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23(5), 1176–1191.Google Scholar
  7. Betts, K. R., & Hinsz, V. B. (2010). Collaborative group memory: Processes, performance, and techniques for improvement. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(2), 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blustein, J. (2008). The moral demands of memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blustein, J. (2017). Duty to remember. In S. Bernecker & K. Michaelian (Eds.), Routledge handbook of philosophy of memory (pp. 351–363). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Boyer, P. (2008). Evolutionary economics of mental time travel? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(6), 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bratman, M. E. (2014). Shared agency: A planning theory of acting together. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brewer, W. F. (1996). What is recollective memory? In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Remembering our past: Studies in autobiographical memory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Broad, C. (1925). The mind and its place in nature. London: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  14. Buckner, R. L. (2010). The role of the hippocampus in prediction and imagination. Annual Review of Psychology, 61(1), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheng, S., Werning, M., & Suddendorf, T. (2016). Dissociating memory traces and scenario construction in mental time travel. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 60, 82–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conway, M. A. (2001). Sensory-perceptual episodic memory and its context: Autobiographical memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 356(1413), 1375–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crystal, J. D. (2010). Episodic-like memory in animals. Behavioural Brain Research, 215(2), 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cuc, A., Koppel, J., & Hirst, W. (2007). Silence is not golden: A case for socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting. Psychological Science, 18(8), 727–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cuc, A., Ozuru, Y., Manier, D., & Hirst, W. (2006). On the formation of collective memories: The role of a dominant narrator. Memory & Cognition, 34(4), 752–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Argembeau, A., & Van der Linden, M. (2004). Phenomenal characteristics associated with projecting oneself back into the past and forward into the future: Influence of valence and temporal distance. Consciousness and Cognition, 13(4), 844–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Brigard, F. (2013). Is memory for remembering? Recollection as a form of episodic hypothetical thinking. Synthese, 191(2), 155–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Brigard, F. (2014). The nature of memory traces. Philosophy Compass, 9(6), 402–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Brigard, F. (forthcoming). Memory and the intentional stance. In B. Huebner (Ed.), Engaging Daniel Dennett: Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Debus, D. (2014). ‘Mental time travel’: Remembering the past, imagining the future, and the particularity of events. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 5(3), 333–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge: MIT press.Google Scholar
  26. Dorsch, F. (2014). Focused daydreaming and mind-wandering. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 6(4), 791–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Droege, P. (2017). Memory and consciousness. In S. Bernecker & K. Michaelian (Eds.), Routledge handbook of philosophy of memory (pp. 103–112). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Eacott, M. J., & Easton, A. (2012). Remembering the past and thinking about the future: Is it really about time? Learning and Motivation, 43(4), 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eichenbaum, H., Fortin, N. J., Ergorul, C., Wright, S. P., & Agster, K. L. (2005). Episodic recollection in animals: “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck. Learning and Motivation, 36(2), 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Erll, A., Nünning, A., & Young, S. B. (2008). A companion to cultural memory studies. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  31. Gilbert, M. (1989). On social facts. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Halbwachs, M. (1992). The social frameworks of memory. In L. A. Coser (Ed.), On collective memory (pp. 35–189). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1925).Google Scholar
  33. Harris, C. B., Barnier, A. J., Sutton, J., & Keil, P. G. (2014). Couples as socially distributed cognitive systems: Remembering in everyday social and material contexts. Memory Studies, 7(3), 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harris, C. B., Barnier, A. J., Sutton, J., Keil, P. G., & Dixon, R.A. (forthcoming). “Going episodic”: Collaborative inhibition and facilitation when long-married couples remember together. Memory.Google Scholar
  35. Harris, C. B., Keil, P. G., Sutton, J., Barnier, A. J., & McIlwain, D. J. F. (2011). We remember, we forget: Collaborative remembering in older couples. Discourse Processes, 48(4), 267–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D., Vann, S. D., & Maguire, E. A. (2007). Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(5), 1726–1731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hasselmo, M. E. (2012). How we remember: Brain mechanisms of episodic memory. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  38. Herrera, M., Sani, F., & Bowe, M. (2011). Perceived family continuity: Implications for family identification and psychological well-being. Revista de Psicología Social, 26(3), 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hirst, W., & Echterhoff, G. (2012). Remembering in conversations: The social sharing and reshaping of memories. Annual Review of Psychology, 63(1), 55–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huebner, B. (2014). Macrocognition: A theory of distributed minds and collective intentionality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Huebner, B. (2016). Transactive memory reconstructed: Rethinking Wegner’s research program. Southern Journal of Philosophy, 54(1), 48–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huebner, B. (forthcoming). Planning and prefigurative politics: The nature of freedom and the possibility of control. In B. Huebner (Ed.), Engaging Daniel Dennett: Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Irving, Z. C. (2016). Mind-wandering is unguided attention: Accounting for the “purposeful” wanderer. Philosophical Studies, 173(2), 547–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kattago, S. (2015). The ashgate research companion to memory studies. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  45. Klein, S. B. (2015). What memory is. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 6(1), 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klein, S. B., Loftus, J., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (2002). Memory and temporal experience: The effects of episodic memory loss on an amnesic patient’s ability to remember the past and imagine the future. Social Cognition, 20(5), 353–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. List, C. (forthcoming). What is it like to be a group agent? Noûs.Google Scholar
  48. List, C., & Pettit, P. (2013). Group agency: The possibility. design and status of corporate agents. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Mahr, J., & Csibra, G. (forthcoming). Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory. Behavioural and Brain Sciences.Google Scholar
  50. Margalit, A. (2002). The ethics of memory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Margrett, J. A., Reese-Melancon, C., & Rendell, P. G. (2011). Examining collaborative dialogue among couples: A window into prospective memory processes. Journal of Psychology, 219(2), 100–107.Google Scholar
  52. Markowitsch, H. J., & Staniloiu, A. (2011). Memory, autonoetic consciousness, and the self. Consciousness and Cognition, 20(1), 16–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matthen, M. (2010). Is memory preservation? Philosophical Studies, 148, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meade, M. L., Nokes, T. J., & Morrow, D. G. (2009). Expertise promotes facilitation on a collaborative memory task. Memory, 17(1), 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Michaelian, K. (2011). Generative memory. Philosophical Psychology, 24(3), 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Michaelian, K. (2012). Metacognition and endorsement. Mind & Language, 27(3), 284–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Michaelian, K. (2016a). Against discontinuism: Mental time travel and our knowledge of past and future events. In K. Michaelian, S. B. Klein, & K. K. Szpunar (Eds.), Seeing the future: Theoretical perspectives on future-oriented mental time travel (pp. 62–92). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Michaelian, K. (2016b). Mental time travel: Episodic memory and our knowledge of the personal past. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  59. Michaelian, K., & Arango-Munoz, S. (forthcoming). Collaborative memory knowlege: A distributed reliabilist perspective. In M. Meade, C. Harris, P. V. Bergen, J. Sutton, & A. Barnier (Eds.), Collaborative remembering: Theories, research, applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Michaelian, K., Klein, S. B., & Szpunar, K. K. (Eds.). (2016). Seeing the future: Theoretical perspectives on future-oriented mental time travel. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Michaelian, K., & Sutton, J. (forthcoming). Collective memory. In K. Ludwig, & M. Jankovic (Eds.), Routledge handbook of collective intentionality. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Mulgan, T. (2008). Future people: A moderate consequentialist account of our obligations to future generations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Mullally, S. L., & Maguire, E. A. (2014). Memory, imagination, and predicting the future: A common brain mechanism? The Neuroscientist, 20(3), 220–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nikulin, D. (2015). Memory: A history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Olick, J. K. (1999). Collective memory: The two cultures. Sociological Theory, 17(3), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olick, J. K., & Robbins, J. (1998). Social memory studies: From “collective memory” to the historical sociology of mnemonic practices. Annual Review of Sociology, 24, 105–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Olick, J. K., Vinitzky-Seroussi, V., & Levy, D. (2011). The collective memory reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Otgaar, H., Scoboria, A., & Mazzoni, G. (2014). On the existence and implications of nonbelieved memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 349–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perrin, D. (2016). Asymmetries in subjective time. In K. Michaelian, S. B. Klein, & K. K. Szpunar (Eds.), Seeing the future: Theoretical perspectives on future-oriented mental time travel (pp. 39–61). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perrin, D., & Michaelian, K. (2017). Memory as mental time travel. In S. Bernecker & K. Michaelian (Eds.), Routledge handbook of philosophy of memory (pp. 228–239). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Perrin, D., & Rousset, S. (2014). The episodicity of memory. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 5(3), 291–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Quinton, A. (1975). Social objects. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 76, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rajaram, S., & Pereira-Pasarin, L. P. (2010). Collaborative memory: Cognitive research and theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 649–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reese, E., & Fivush, R. (2008). The development of collective remembering. Memory, 16(3), 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ren, Y., & Argote, L. (2011). Transactive memory systems 1985–2010: An integrative framework of key dimensions, antecedents, and consequences. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 189–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Robins, S. K. (2016). Misremembering. Philosophical Psychology, 29(3), 432–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rubin, D. C., & Umanath, S. (2015). Event memory: A theory of memory for laboratory, autobiographical and fictional events. Psychological Review, 122(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rupert, R. (2005). Minding one’s cognitive systems: When does a group of minds constitute a single cognitive unit? Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology, 1, 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Russell, B. (1921). The analysis of mind. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  80. Sani, F., Bowe, M., Herrera, M., Manna, C., Cossa, T., Miao, X., et al. (2007). Perceived collective continuity: Seeing groups as entities that move through time. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(6), 1118–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schacter, D., Addis, D., Hassabis, D., Martin, V., Spreng, R., & Szpunar, K. (2012). The future of memory: Remembering, imagining, and the brain. Neuron, 76(4), 677–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schacter, D. L. (2012). Adaptive constructive processes and the future of memory. American Psychologist, 67(8), 603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schacter, D. L., Addis, D. R., & Buckner, R. L. (2007). Remembering the past to imagine the future: The prospective brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(9), 657–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schacter, D. L., Benoit, R. G., Brigard, F. D., & Szpunar, K. K. (2015). Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: Intersections between memory and decisions. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 117, 14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schwitzgebel, E. (2014). If materialism is true, the United States is probably conscious. Philosophical Studies, 172(7), 1697–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Searle, J. (1990). Collective intentions and actions. In P. Cohen, J. Morgan, & M. Pollack (Eds.), Intentions in communication (pp. 401–415). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  87. Sellers, P. D, I. I., & Schwartz, B. L. (2013). Episodic-like animals, functional faces, and a defense of accuracy. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2(4), 243–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2015). The science of mind wandering: Empirically navigating the stream of consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 487–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stone, C. B., Coman, A., Brown, A. D., Koppel, J., & Hirst, W. (2012). Toward a science of silence: The consequences of leaving a memory unsaid. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Suddendorf, T., & Corballis, M. C. (2007). The evolution of foresight: What is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30(3), 299–312.Google Scholar
  91. Sutton, J. (1998). Philosophy and memory traces: Descartes to connectionism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Sutton, J. (2006). Introduction: Memory, embodied cognition, and the extended mind. Philosophical Psychology, 19(3), 281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sutton, J. (2008). Between individual and collective memory: Coordination, interaction, distribution. Social Research: An International Quarterly of Social Sciences, 75(1), 23–48.Google Scholar
  94. Sutton, J. (2010). Observer perspective and acentred memory: Some puzzles about point of view in personal memory. Philosophical Studies, 148(1), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sutton, J., & Tribble, E. B. (2014). The creation of space: Narrative strategies, group agency, and skill in Lloyd Jones’s The Book of Fame. In C. Danta, & H. Groth, (eds.), Mindful aesthetics: Literature and the sciences of mind (pp. 141–160). New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  96. Szpunar, K. K. (2010). Episodic future thought: An emerging concept. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(2), 142–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Szpunar, K. K., Spreng, R. N., & Schacter, D. L. (2014). A taxonomy of prospection: Introducing an organizational framework for future-oriented cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(52), 18414–18421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Szpunar, K. K., Spreng, R. N., & Schacter, D. L. (2016). Toward a taxonomy of future thinking. In K. Michaelian, S. B. Klein, & K. K. Szpunar (Eds.), Seeing the future: Theoretical perspectives on future-orientedmental time travel (pp. 21–35). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Szpunar, P. M., & Szpunar, K. K. (2016). Collective future thought: Concept, function, and implications for collective memory studies. Memory Studies, 9(4), 376–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Teroni, F. (2017). Phenomenology of remembering. In S. Bernecker & K. Michaelian (Eds.), Routledge handbook of philosophy of memory (pp. 21–33). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  101. Theiner, G. (2013). Transactive memory systems: A mechanistic analysis of emergent group memory. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 4(1), 65–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Theiner, G. (2014). A beginner’s guide to group minds. In M. Sprevak & J. Kallestrup (Eds.), New waves in philosophy of mind (pp. 301–322). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tollefsen, D. (2015). Groups as agents. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  104. Tollefsen, D., & Dale, R. (2012). Naturalizing joint action: A process-based approach. Philosophical Psychology, 25(3), 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tollefsen, D. P. (2006). From extended mind to collective mind. Cognitive Systems Research, 7(23), 140–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tollefsen, D. P., Dale, R., & Paxton, A. (2013). Alignment, transactive memory, and collective cognitive systems. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 4(1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tota, A. L., & Hagen, T. (2015). Routledge international handbook of memory studies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  108. Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory (pp. 381–402). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  109. Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  110. Tulving, E. (2002). Episodic memory: From mind to brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tulving, E. (2005). Episodic memory and autonoesis: Uniquely human? In H. S. Terrace & J. Metcalfe (Eds.), The missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness (pp. 3–56). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tuomela, R. (2000). Cooperation: A philosophical study. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Van Hoeck, N., Ma, N., Ampe, L., Baetens, K., Vandekerckhove, M., & Van Overwalle, F. (2013). Counterfactual thinking: An FMRI study on changing the past for a better future. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(5), 556–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vandekerckhove, M., & Panksepp, J. (2009). The flow of anoetic to noetic and autonoetic consciousness: A vision of unknowing (anoetic) and knowing (noetic) consciousness in the remembrance of things past and imagined futures. Consciousness and Cognition, 18(4), 1018–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vosgerau, G. (2010). Memory and content. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 838–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wegner, D. M. (1987). Transactive memory: A contemporary analysis of the group mind. In B. Mullen & G. R. Goethals (Eds.), Theories of group behavior (pp. 185–208). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wegner, D. M., Erber, R., & Raymond, P. (1991). Transactive memory in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(6), 923–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Weldon, M. S. (2000). Remembering as a social process. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 40, 67–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wertsch, J. V. (2009). Collective memory. In P. Boyer & J. V. Wertsch (Eds.), Memory in mind and culture (pp. 117–137). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Westbury, C., & Dennett, D. (2000). Mining the past to construct the future: Memory and belief as forms of knowledge. In D. L. Schacter & E. Scarry (Eds.), Memory, brain, and belief. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Wheeler, M. A., Stuss, D. T., & Tulving, E. (1997). Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 331–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wilson, R. A. (2005). Collective memory, group minds, and the extended mind thesis. Cognitive Processing, 6(4), 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wimsatt, W. C. (1986). Forms of aggregativity. In A. Donagan, A. N. Perovich, & M. V. Wedin (Eds.), Human nature and natural knowledge: Essays presented to Marjorie Grene on the occasion of her seventy-fifth birthday (pp. 259–291). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations