Advertisement

Synthese

, Volume 195, Issue 9, pp 3837–3856 | Cite as

Epistemic justification: its subjective and its objective ways

  • Wolfgang Spohn
S.I. : Epistemic Justification

Abstract

Objective standards for justification or for being a reason would be desirable, but inductive skepticism tells us that they cannot be presupposed. Rather, we have to start from subjective-relative notions of justification and of being a reason. The paper lays out the strategic options we have given this dilemma. The paper explains the requirements for this subject-relative notion and how they may be satisfied. Then it discusses four quite heterogeneous ways of providing more objective standards, which combine without guaranteeing complete success.

Keywords

Epistemic reasons Justification Apriority Objectivity Pragmatic theory of truth Rationality Ranking theory 

References

  1. Besnard, P., & Hunter, A. (2008). Elements of argumentation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Betz, G. (2010). Theorie dialektischer Strukturen. Frankfurt a.M: Klostermann.Google Scholar
  3. Bittner, R. (2001). Doing things for reasons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackburn, S. (1990). Hume and thick connexions. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 50 (Supplement), 237–250.Google Scholar
  5. BonJour, L. (1985). The structure of empirical knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Carnap, R. (1950). The logical foundations of probability. Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carnap, R. (1952). The continuum of inductive methods. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  8. Carnap, R. (1956). The methodological character of theoretical concepts. In H. Feigl & M. Scriven (Eds.), Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science (Vol. I, pp. 38–76). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  9. Carnap, R., & Jeffrey, R. C. (Eds.). (1971). Studies in inductive logic and probability (Vol. I). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, L. J. (1977). The probable and the provable. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dancy, J. (2000). Practical reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. de Finetti, B. (1937). La Prévision: Ses Lois Logiques, Ses Sources Subjectives. Annales de l’Institut Henri Poincaré 7, 1–68. Engl. translation: Foresight: Its logical laws, its subjective sources. In: H. E. Kyburg Jr, & H. E. Smokler (Eds.) (1964) Studies in subjective probability. New York: Wiley, pp. 93–158.Google Scholar
  13. Dubois, D., & Prade, H. (1988). Possibility theory: An approach to computerized processing of uncertainty. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Field, H. (1996). The A prioricity of logic. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 96, 359–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freitag, W. (2015). I bet you’ll solve Goodman’s Riddle. Philosophical Quarterly, 65, 254–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Friedman, M. (1999). Dynamics of reason. Stanford: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Greaves, H., & Wallace, D. (2006). Justifying conditionalization: Conditionalization maximizes expected epistemic utility. Mind, 115, 607–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hempel, C. G., & Oppenheim, P. (1948). Studies in the logic of explanation. Philosophy of Science, 15, 135–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hempel, C. G. (1965). Aspects of scientific explanation and other essays in the philosophy of science. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  20. Horty, J. F. (2012). Reasons as defaults. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huber, F. (2013). Belief revision II: Ranking theory. Philosophical Compass, 8, 613–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huber, F. (2014). New foundations for counterfactuals. Synthese, 191, 2167–2193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halpern, J. Y. (2003). Reasoning about uncertainty. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jeffrey, R. C. (1992). Probability and the art of judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Joyce, J. (1998). A nonpragmatic vindication of probabilism. Philosophy of Science, 65, 575–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelly, K. (1996). The logic of reliable inquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kelly, K. (1999). Iterated belief revision, reliability, and inductive amnesia. Erkenntnis, 50, 11–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leitgeb, H. (2004). Inference on the low level. An investigation into deduction, nonmonotonic reasoning, and the philosophy of cognition. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  29. Leitgeb, H. (2014). The stability theory of belief. Philosophical Review, 123, 131–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leitgeb, H., & Pettigrew, R. (2010). An objective justification of Bayesianism II: The consequences of minimizing accuracy. Philosophy of Science, 77, 26–272.Google Scholar
  31. Lewis, D. K. (1973). Counterfactuals. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  32. Lewis, D. K. (1980). A subjectivist’s guide to objective chance. In: R. C. Jeffrey (ed.), Studies in inductive logic and probability (Vol. II, pp. 263–293). University of California Press. (also in D. K. Lewis (1986). Philosophical papers (Vol. II, pp. 83–113, supplemented by postscripts). Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  33. Lukits, S. (2014). The principle of maximum entropy and a problem in probability kinematics. Synthese, 191, 1409–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oddie, G. (2014). Truthlikeness. In: E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/truthlikeness/.
  35. Olsson, E. J. (2012). Coherentist theories of epistemic justification. In: E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/justep-coherence/.
  36. Pearl, J. (1988). Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems: Networks of plausible inference. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  37. Pearl, J. (1990). System Z: A natural ordering of defaults with tractable applications to default reasoning. In R. Parikh (Ed.), Proceedings TARK-90 (pp. 121–135). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  38. Pettigrew, R. (2016). Accuracy and the laws of credence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pollock, J. L. (1990). Nomic probability and the foundations of induction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pollock, J. L. (1995). Cognitive carpentry: A blueprint for how to build a person. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  41. Rosenkrantz, R. D. (1992). The justification of induction. Philosophy of Science, 59, 527–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rott, H. (2009). Shifting priorities: Simple representations for twenty seven iterated theory change operators. In D. Makinson, J. Malinowski, & H. Wansing (Eds.), Towards mathematical philosophy (pp. 269–296). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Savage, L. J. (1954). The foundations of statistics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Shackle, G. L. S. (1961). Decision, order, and time in human affairs (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Shafer, G. (1976). A mathematical theory of evidence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Shogenji, T. (1999). Is coherence truth-conducive? Analysis, 59, 338–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spohn, W. (2001). Vier Begründungsbegriffe. In T. Grundmann (Ed.), Erkenntnistheorie. Positionen zwischen Tradition und Gegenwart (pp. 33–52). Mentis, Paderborn.Google Scholar
  48. Spohn, W. (2009). A survey of ranking theory. In F. Huber & C. Schmidt-Petri (Eds.), Degrees of belief. An anthology (pp. 185–228). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spohn, W. (2010). Chance and necessity: From humean supervenience to humean projection. In E. Eells & J. Fetzer (Eds.), The place of probability in science (pp. 101–131). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Spohn, W. (2012). The laws of belief. Ranking theory and its philosophical applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Spohn, W. (2016a). Three kinds of worlds and two kinds of truth. Philosophical Studies, 173(5), 1335–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spohn, W. (2016b). Enumerative induction. In C. Beyer, G. Brewka, & M. Timm (Eds.), Foundations of formal rationality: Essays dedicated to Gabriele Kern-Isberner on the occasion of her 60th birthday (pp. 96–114). London: College Publications.Google Scholar
  53. Spohn, W. (2017). How the modalities come into the world. Erkenntnis, 82. doi: 10.1007/s10670-016-9874-y.
  54. Walley, P. (1991). Statistical reasoning with imprecise probabilities. London: Chapman & Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williamson, J. (2005). Bayesian nets and causality. Philosophical and computational foundations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Williamson, T. (2000). Knowledge and its limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of KonstanzKonstanzGermany

Personalised recommendations