, Volume 192, Issue 7, pp 1939–1954

The relativity and universality of logic


DOI: 10.1007/s11229-014-0419-0

Cite this article as:
Beziau, JY. Synthese (2015) 192: 1939. doi:10.1007/s11229-014-0419-0


After recalling the distinction between logic as reasoning and logic as theory of reasoning, we first examine the question of relativity of logic arguing that the theory of reasoning as any other science is relative. In a second part we discuss the emergence of universal logic as a general theory of logical systems, making comparison with universal algebra and the project of mathesis universalis. In a third part we critically present three lines of research connected to universal logic: logical pluralism, non-classical logics and cognitive science.


Logic Universality of logic Relativity of logic Universal logic Universal algebra Mathesis universalis Characteristica universalis Logical pluralism Non-classical logics Paraconsistent logic Cognitive science 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyFederal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian Research Council, Brazilian Academy of PhilosophyRio de JaneiroBrazil

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