Philosophical intuitions, heuristics, and metaphors

Abstract

Psychological explanations of philosophical intuitions can help us assess their evidentiary value, and our warrant for accepting them. To explain and assess conceptual or classificatory intuitions about specific situations, some philosophers have suggested explanations which invoke heuristic rules proposed by cognitive psychologists. The present paper extends this approach of intuition assessment by heuristics-based explanation, in two ways: It motivates the proposal of a new heuristic, and shows that this metaphor heuristic helps explain important but neglected intuitions: general factual intuitions which have been highly influential in the philosophies of mind and perception but neglected in ongoing debates in the epistemology of philosophy. To do so, the paper integrates results from three philosophically pertinent but hitherto largely unconnected strands of psychological research: research on intuitive judgement, analogy and metaphor, and memory-based processing, respectively. The paper shows that the heuristics-based explanation thus obtained satisfies the key requirements cognitive psychologists impose on such explanations, that it can explain the philosophical intuitions targeted, and that this explanation supports normative assessment of the intuitions’ evidentiary value: It reveals whether particular intuitions are due to proper exercise of cognitive competencies or constitute cognitive illusions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    See (Cappelen (2012), Chaps. 2–3), for comprehensive review of the various different uses of the term in ordinary English and philosophy, respectively. Cp. also op. cit. 98–114.

  2. 2.

    In some defenders of armchair philosophy, this desire is tempered by a co-operative naturalism (e.g. Goldman) or transformed by scepticism about the viability of the a priori/a posteriori distinction (e.g. Williamson).

  3. 3.

    For exceptions see e.g. Hawthorne (2002).

  4. 4.

    This is emphatically not intended as an exhaustive dichotomy.

  5. 5.

    One hence needs to beware of simplistic interpretations of the increasingly influential ‘dual process accounts of cognition’ (Evans 2008; Evans and Frankish 2010) in which Kahneman and Frederick (2002, 2005) embed earlier work on heuristics and biases and which some philosophers take up to explain philosophical intuitions (e.g. Nagel 2011; Pinillos et al. 2011), while leading proponents of the ABC programme reject these accounts (Gigerenzer and Regier 1996; Gigerenzer 2009; further criticism: Keren and Schul 2009; Osman 2004). See Evans and Stanovich (2013) for the current state of the debate which is beyond this paper’s scope. We will develop an explanation largely consistent with but not reliant upon such accounts.

  6. 6.

    When found compelling, non-perceptual judgments generated by spontaneous processes satisfy our above definition of ‘intuition’.

  7. 7.

    In these experiments subjects were not provided with information that would have allowed them to make judgments based on normative rules—which could hence only be applied to outputs of prior heuristic reasoning or processing. Where such information (e.g. base rates) is provided, heuristic and analytic processes may generate competing responses in parallel (De Neys and Glumicic 2008). The present paper is consistent with but does not rely on the purely ‘default-interventionist’ architecture (Evans 2007) endorsed by Kahneman and Frederick (2002, 2005).

  8. 8.

    Within the ABC programme, researchers seek to predict and explain different but no less surprising effects, e.g. ‘less-is-more effects’ where subjects perform better when possessing less relevant information (Goldstein and Gigerenzer 2002).

  9. 9.

    When a property or relation in the source domain (say, ‘x orbits y’) is mapped onto a property or relation in the target domain (itself, if available), their arguments or relata (be they individuals—like planets and sun—or lower-level properties or relations) have to be placed in correspondence too (‘parallel connectivity’); and each element (individual, property, relation) in one domain must be placed in correspondence with at most one element in the other domain (‘one-to-one mapping’).

  10. 10.

    In the process, both source and target may get ‘re-represented’: Where the two domains do not share the same but similar relations, these may either get subsumed under more generic concepts or analysed into simpler concepts, which apply in both domains (Falkenhainer et al. 1989; Forbus et al. 1995).

  11. 11.

    In similar studies, including the one mentioned below (Blanchette and Dunbar 2002, p. 675) experimenters explicitly used CSG to generate the test sentences.

  12. 12.

    Despite its frequently noted importance, this metaphor has not yet been reconstructed in any detail. See Fischer (2011, pp. 22–28, 41–49), for a more detailed discussion, also of its relation to other ‘mind metaphors’.

  13. 13.

    The idea outlined in this paragraph is developed, e.g., by the theory of ‘information-based processing’ (Budiu and Anderson 2004, 2008), see Sect. 4.1. This ‘unified account’ of metaphor and literal understanding is consistent with the ‘career of metaphor’ hypothesis below.

  14. 14.

    p has the metaphorical implication q* iff p\({\rightarrow }\)q* can be obtained through CSG from a truth p\({\rightarrow }\)q about the source-domain of a conceptual metaphor whose constitutive mappings license substitution of or in q yielding q*, but license no substitution of or in p. ‘\({\rightarrow }\)’ designates de- or inductive inference. (My definition).

  15. 15.

    E.g.: Just as the ‘antecedents’ of (4) and (7) above imply that of (2), so their ‘consequents’ imply the ‘consequent’ of (2). Ditto for (1) and (3), (6) and (4), etc.

  16. 16.

    ABC researchers use a heuristic’s simplicity and frugality (i.e. use of little information) to argue that it can account for performance in real-life situations. Where proposed heuristics—like ours—deploy only natural processes which are demonstrably executed in real time, this argument can be made more directly and convincingly, without detour via frugality (which we hence do not discuss here).

  17. 17.

    Gentner et al. (2002) used such a ‘naturalistic’ setting for an experiment revealing metaphor consistency effects indicative of processes of re-mapping and inference. Participants needed on average 1277 ms longer to answer a metaphorically phrased question when it employed a different conceptual metaphor than the previous question (op. cit. 555). This leaves just over one second for fresh mapping and inference.

  18. 18.

    A recent review (Genter and Forbus 2011) reviews 7 computational models of retrieval and 16 models of mapping. This provides the resources to model the natural processes the proposed heuristic draws on, rendering it precise enough to be modelled computationally.

  19. 19.

    Application to the representativeness heuristic [see Read and Grushka-Cockayne (2011) for a development within the ABC framework] illustrates that correlation of cue (prototypicality of judgment object for category) and criterion (probability that object belongs to category) need not prevent even systematic fallacies (like the conjunction fallacy) from arising from the application of the rule itself. Hence stress ‘likely’ and ‘primarily’ in the main text.

  20. 20.

    Day and Gentner (2007, exp. 2), rules out simple lexical priming but no other associative processes. While no account of how associative processes could duplicate analogical inferences has yet been spelled out in detail, e.g. Leech et al. (2008) provide an associationist model of basic analogical processing.

  21. 21.

    Careful experiment excluded alternative explanations, crucially including explanations that invoke Gricean principles of cooperation (Reder and Kusbit 1991; Park and Reder 2004), and supports the partial match hypothesis, which can also explain a wide range of further phenomena (Kamas and Reder 1995).

  22. 22.

    Also recall (from Sect. 4.1) that frequent exposure to concepts and their combinations strengthens the nodes representing them and the links connecting these. When a thinker is well-versed in faculty psychology, the nodes representing the technical concepts ‘intellect’ and ‘understanding’ will attract more activation than ‘wits’, both because of their own strength and that of their link to ‘think’ etc.

  23. 23.

    Fischer (2011, pp. 41–45), offers a fuller reconstruction of this complex spatial operation metaphor.

  24. 24.

    Such inferences are facilitated by re-representation (Fn. 10).

  25. 25.

    The verb’s use was not metaphorically extended from the visual to the intellectual domain (cp. Sweetser 1990): Deriving from the Latin ‘capere’ (to take, seize; ‘per-’ = thoroughly), it was extended from the source domain of spatial operation (what you seize is in your surrounding space) to the different target domains of intellectual achievement (where you ‘grasp’ my point) and sense-perception (where you ‘catch’ a glimpse). Parallel extension forged the generic concept ‘to apprehend [=seize] with the mind or senses’, i.e., ‘to become aware’ or cognizant of, by thinking or seeing, etc. (OED) which applies in present source- and target-domain.

  26. 26.

    Note this term’s now defunct visual senses: ‘likeness, image, representation’ (1530s—early eighteenth century, as in ‘ideas in the mirror’, cp. Locke EHU II.i.25), was extended, first, to memory images (1570s), then to pictures or notions of something formed in the mind, independently of memory (1580s), and finally given the yet more general philosophical use at issue (OED).

  27. 27.

    Quite possibly, competent speakers do not place an introspective interpretation on these phrases when they do not have, or dwell on, the intuitions explained: ‘aware of’ means ‘to know, have cognizance of’, and applies in the same sense regardless of the nature of its objects (OED): investment risks, deadlines, or sensations, own or other, etc. Similarly, the use of ‘conscious of’ in which it only takes ‘one’s sensations, feelings, thoughts, etc.’ as objects is marked as ‘philosophical and psychological’. In its ordinary use, the verb simply means ‘having knowledge or awareness’ and takes facts and information as objects. (ibid.)

  28. 28.

    Locke states that, and explains why, he feels torn between these two conceptions, in EHU IV.iii.6.

  29. 29.

    An anonymous reviewer helpfully clarified (my italics): ‘Under some circumstances, candidate inferences can be deductively valid, e.g., when the statements in the base are an instantiation of a logically quantified statement, and the match has no analogy skolems.’

  30. 30.

    With mapping 3* (Sect. 3.2) but without N.

  31. 31.

    More generally, this default move frequently restores intelligibility, sometimes truth, and makes it possible to apply expressions containing spatial terms (‘before’, ‘in’, etc.) to abstract entities, without lapse into nonsense, even where the relevant metaphor does not unfold from a basic mapping that involves a spatial relation (as with Thinking-about as Looking-at, in contrast with Thinking-of as Spatial Inclusion).

  32. 32.

    Locke does the former in the passages quoted above and the latter, e.g., in EHU II.iii.1 and II.viii.12. See Fischer (2011, pp. 103–109, 116–123) on Locke and Berkeley, respectively.

  33. 33.

    Not to be confused with the ‘no false lemma rule’ proposed in response to the Gettier problem.

  34. 34.

    For an experimental paradigm to establish such semantic similarity, see e.g. van Oostendorp and Mul (1990).

  35. 35.

    Other explanations of meaning are informed by the basic mapping of the conceptual metaphor Remembering as Spatial Inclusion. See Fischer (2011, pp. 56–57).

  36. 36.

    Thompson et al. (2011, exp. 3) found evidence that cue ambiguity is another relevant factor.

  37. 37.

    For analogical priming and relational fluency, respectively, see, e.g., Spellman et al. (2001) and Day (2007).

References

  1. Aarts, H., & Hassin, R. R. (2005). Automatic goal inference and contagion: On pursuing goals one perceives in other people’s behavior. In S. M. Latham, J. P. Forgas, & K. D. Williams (Eds.), Social motivation: Conscious and unconscious processes (pp. 153–167). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  2. Albrecht, J. E., & Myers, J. L. (1998). Accessing distant text information during reading. Discourse Processes, 26, 87–107.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alexander, J., & Weinberg, J. (2007). Analytic epistemology and experimental philosophy. Philosophy Compass, 2, 56–80.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Alter, A. L., Oppenheimer, D. M., Epley, N., & Eyre, R. N. (2007). Overcoming intuition: meta-cognitive difficulty activates analytic reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 569–576.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Alter, A. L., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2009). Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 219–235.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Anderson, J. R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  7. Anderson, J. R., Bothell, D., Byrne, M. D., Douglass, S., Lebiere, C., & Qin, Y. (2004). An integrated theory of the mind. Psychological Review, 111, 1036–1060.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Anderson, J., Budiu, R., & Reder, L. (2001). A theory of sentence memory as part of a general theory of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 337–367.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bargh, J. A. (1994). The four horsemen of automaticity. In R. Wyer & T. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition, vol. 1 (pp. 1–40). Hillsdale: Earlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Barton, S. B., & Sandford, A. J. (1993). A case study of anomaly detection: Shallow semantic processing and cohesion establishment. Memory and Cognition, 21, 477–487.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bealer, G. (1996). On the possibility of philosophical knowledge. In J. E. Tomberlin (Ed.), Philosophical perspectives 10, metaphysics, vol. 1–34. Cambridge: Ridgeview Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Berkeley, G. (1996). Philosophical works. M. Ayers (ed.) London: Dent.

  13. Blanchette, I., & Dunbar, K. (2002). Representational change and analogy: How analogical inferences alter representations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 28, 672–685.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Boroditsky, L. (2000). Metaphoric structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 75, 1–27.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Boroditsky, L., & Ramscar, M. (2002). The roles of body and mind in abstract thought. Psychological Science, 13, 185–188.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bowdle, B., & Gentner, D. (2005). The career of metaphor. Psychological Review, 112, 193–216.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Budiu, R., & Anderson, J. R. (2004). Interpretation-based processing: A unified theory of semantic sentence comprehension. Cognitive Science, 28, 1–44.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Budiu, R. & Anderson, J.R. (2008). Integration of background knowledge in language processing: A unified theory of metaphor understanding, Moses illusions and text memory. CMU Department of Psychology. http://repository.cmu.edu/psychology/52.

  19. Cappelen, H. (2012). Philosophy without intuitions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Casteel, M. A. (2007). Contextual support and predictive inferences: What do readers generate and keep available for use? Discourse Processes, 44, 51–72.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Clement, C. A., & Gentner, D. (1991). Systematicity as a selection constraint in analogical mapping. Cognitive Science, 15, 89–132.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Cole Wright, J. (2010). On intuitional stability: The clear, the strong, and the paradigmatic. Cognition, 115, 491–503.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Cook, A. E., & Guéraud, S. (2005). What have we been missing? The role of general world knowledge in discourse processing. Discourse Processes, 39, 265–278.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Day, S.B. 2007: Processing fluency for relational structure. PhD Dissertation, Northwestern University, UMI No. 3284195, http://search.proquest.com/docview/304816618.

  25. Day, S. B., & Gentner, D. (2007). Non-intentional analogical inference in text-comprehension. Memory and Cognition, 35, 39–49.

    Google Scholar 

  26. De Neys, W. (2006). Automatic-heuristic and executive-analytic processing during reasoning: Chronometric and dual-task considerations. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1070–1100.

    Google Scholar 

  27. De Neys, W., & Glumicic, T. (2008). Conflict monitoring in dual process theories of thinking. Cognition, 106, 1248–1299.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Deutsch, R., Kordts-Freudinger, R., Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (2009). Fast and fragile. A new look at the automaticity of negation processing. Experimental Psychology, 56, 434–46.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Erickson, T., & Mattson, M. (1981). From words to meaning: A semantic illusion. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 20, 540–551.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Evans, J. S. B. T. (2007). On the resolution of conflict in dual-process theories of reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning, 13, 321–339.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Evans, J. S. B. T. (2008). Dual processing accounts of reasoning, judgment and social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 255–278.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Evans, J. S. B. T. (2010). Intuition and reasoning: A dual-process perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 21, 313–326.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Evans, J. S. B. T., & Frankish, K. (2009). In two minds: Dual processes and beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Evans, J. S. B. T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223–241.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Falkenhainer, B., Forbus, K. D., & Gentner, D. (1989). The structure-mapping engine: Algorithm and examples. Artificial Intelligence, 41, 1–63.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Fischer, E. (2011). Philosophical delusion and its therapy. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Fogelin, R. (2001). Berkeley and the principles of human knowledge. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Forbus, K. D., Gentner, D., & Law, K. (1995). MAC/FAC: A model of similarity-based retrieval. Cognitive Science, 19, 141–205.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Gentner, D. (1983). Structure mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155–170.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Gentner, D., & Bowdle, B. (2008). Metaphor as structure-mapping. In R. Gibbs (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought (pp. 109–128). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Genter, D., & Forbus, K. D. (2011). Computational models of analogy. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2, 266–276.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Genter, D., & Grudin, J. (1985). The evolution of mental metaphors in psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 181–192.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Gentner, D., & Kurtz, K. (2006). Relations, objects, and the composition of analogies. Cognitive Science, 30, 609–642.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Gentner, D., Imai, M., & Boroditsky, L. (2002). As time goes by: Evidence for two systems in processing space-time metaphors. Language and Cognitive Processes, 17, 537–565.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Gentner, D., & Markman, A. (2005). Defining structural similarity. Journal of Cognitive Science, 6, 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Gentner, D., Ratterman, M., & Forbus, K. (1993). The roles of similarity in transfer: Separating retrievability from inferential soundness. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 527–575.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Gerrig, R. J., & O’Brien, E. J. (2005). The scope of memory-based processing. Discourse Processes, 39, 225–242.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Gigerenzer, G. (2007). Gut feelings. London: Allen Lane.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Gigerenzer, G. (2008). Rationality for mortals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Gigerenzer, G. (2009). Surrogates for theories. APS Observer, 22, 21–23.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Gigerenzer, G., & Regier, T. (1996). How do we tell an association from a rule? Comment on Sloman (1996). Psychological Bulletin, 119, 23–26.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Gigerenzer, G., & Sturm, T. (2012). How (far) can rationality be rationalised? Synthese, 187, 243–268.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Gigerenzer, G., & Todd, P. M. (1999). Simple heuristics that make us smart. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Gill, M. J., Swann, W. B., & Silvera, D. H. (1998). On the genesis of confidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1101–1114.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Goldman, A. (2007). Philosophical intuitions: Their target, their scope, and their epistemic status. Grazer Philosophische Studien, 74, 1–26.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Goldstein, D., & Gigerenzer, G. (2002). Model of ecological rationality: The recognition heuristic. Psychological Review, 109, 75–90.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Hannon, B., & Daneman, M. (2001). Susceptibility to semantic illusions: An individual-differences perspective. Memory and Cognition, 29, 449–460.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Hassin, R. R., Barch, J. A., & Uleman, J. S. (2002). Spontaneous causal inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 515–22.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Hawthorne, J. (2002). Deeply contingent a priori knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 65, 247–269.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Hawthorne, J. (2004). Knowledge and lotteries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Hesse, M. (1966). Models and analogies in science. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Hesse, M. (2000). Models and analogies. In W. H. Newton-Smith (Ed.), A companion to the philosophy of science (pp. 299–319). Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Holyoak, K. J. (2005). Analogy. In K. J. Holyoak & R. Morrison (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 117–142). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Holyoak, K. J., & Koh, K. (1987). Surface and structural similarity in analogical transfer. Memory and Cognition, 15, 332–340.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Hummel, J. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (2003). A symbolic-connectionist theory of relational inference and generalization. Psychological Review, 110, 220–263.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Jackson, F. (2011). On gettier holdouts. Mind and Language, 26, 468–481.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Jäkel, O. (1995). The metaphorical concept of mind. In J. R. Taylor & R. E. McLaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world (pp. 197–229). Berlin: de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Johnson, M. (2008). Philosophy’s debt to metaphor. In R. W. Gibbs (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought (pp. 39–52). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Allen Lane.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases. The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 49–81). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2005). A model of heuristic judgment. In K. J. Holyoak & R. Morrison (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 267–293). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Kamas, E. N., & Reder, L. M. (1995). The role of familiarity in cognitive processing. In R. F. Lorch & E. J. O’Brien (Eds.), Sources of coherence in reading (pp. 177–202). Hillsdale: Earlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Kamas, E. N., Reder, L. M., & Ayers, M. S. (1996). Partial matching in the Moses illusion: Response bias not sensitivity. Memory and Cognition, 24, 687–699.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Kelley, C. M., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Remembering mistaken for knowing: Ease of retrieval as a basis for confidence in answers to general knowledge questions. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 1–24.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Keren, G., & Schul, Y. (2009). Two is not always better than one: A critical evaluation of two-systems theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 533–550.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Knobe, J., & Nichols, S. (2008). An experimental philosophy manifesto. In J. Knobe & S. Nichols (Eds.), Experimental philosophy (pp. 3–14). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Kornblith, H. (2007). Naturalism and intuitions. Grazer Philosophische Studien, 74, 27–49.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Kövesces, Z. (2002). Metaphor. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  79. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Lassaline, M. E. (1996). Structural alignment in induction and similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 754–770.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Leech, R., Mareschal, D., & Cooper, R. P. (2008). Analogy as relational priming. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 31, 357–414.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Locke, J. (1975/1700). An essay concerning human understanding, 4th edn. Ed. by P. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  83. Lupfer, M. B., Clark, L. F., & Hutcherson, H. W. (1990). Impact of context on spontaneous trait and situational attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 239–49.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Markman, A. (1997). Constraints on analogical inference. Cognitive Science, 21, 373–418.

    Google Scholar 

  85. McDonald, P. (2003). History of the concept of mind. Aldershot: Ashgate.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Mercier, H., & Sperber, D. (2009). Intuitive and reflective inferences. In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 149–170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  87. Moors, A., & De Houwer, J. (2006). Automaticity: A theoretical and conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 297–326.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Morewedge, C. K., & Kahneman, D. (2010). Associative processes in intuitive judgment. Trends in Cognitive Science, 14, 435–440.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Nagel, J. (2010). Knowledge ascriptions and the psychological consequences of thinking about error. Philosophical Quarterly, 60, 286–306.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Nagel, J. (2011). The psychological basis of the Harman-Vogel paradox. Philosophers’ Imprint, 11(5), 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Nagel, J. (2012). Intuitions and experiments. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 85, 495–527.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Nahmias, E., Morris, S. G., Nadelhoffer, T., & Turner, J. (2006). Is incompatibilism intuitive? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 73, 28–53.

    Google Scholar 

  93. O’Brien, E. J. (1995). Automatic components in discourse comprehension. In R. F. Lorch & E. J. O’Brien (Eds.), Sources of coherence in reading. Hillsdale: Earlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  94. OED: The Oxford english dictionary, 2nd edn., Online edition March 2012. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

  95. van Oostendorp, H., & de Mul, S. (1990). Modes beats Adam: A semantic relatedness effect on a semantic illusion. Acta Psychologica, 74, 35–46.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Osman, M. (2004). An evaluation of dual-process theories of reasoning. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 11, 988–1010.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Pachur, T., & Hertwig, R. (2006). On the psychology of the recognition heuristic: Retrieval primacy as a key determinant of its use. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 983–1002.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Park, H., & Reder, L. M. (2004). Moses illusion. In R. Pohl (Ed.), Cognitive illusions (pp. 275–291). New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Perrott, D. A., Gentner, D., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2005). Resistance is futile: The unwitting insertion of analogical inferences in memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 696–702.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Pinillos, N. A., Smith, N., Nair, G. S., Marchetto, P., & Mun, C. (2011). Philosophy’s new challenge: Experiments and intentional action. Mind and Language, 26, 115–139.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Pohl, R. F. (Ed.). (2004). Cognitive illusions. New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Pohl, R. F. (2006). Empirical tests of the recognition heuristic. Journal of Behavioural Decision Making, 19, 251–271.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Pust, J. (2000). Intuitions as evidence. London: Garland Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Read, D., & Grushka-Cockayne, Y. (2011). The similarity heuristic. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24, 23–46.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Reder, L. M., & Kusbit, G. W. (1991) Locus of the Moses illusion: Imperfect encoding, retrievel, or match? Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 385–406

    Google Scholar 

  106. Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., & Cherubini, P. (2012). Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica, 139, 244–253.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Rorty, R. (1980). Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Ross, B. (1989). Distinguishing types of superficial similarity: Different effects on the access and use of earlier problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 15, 456–468.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Royzman, E. B., Cassidy, K. W., & Baron, J. (2003). I know, you know. Review of General Psychology, 7, 407–435.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Shieber, J. (2010). On the nature of thought experiments and a core motivation of experimental philosophy. Philosophical Psychology, 23, 547–564.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Simmons, J. P., & Nelson, L. D. (2006). Intuitive confidence: Choosing between intuitive and non-intuitive alternatives. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 135, 409–428.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Sloman, S. A. (1996). The empirical case for two systems of reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 3–22.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Smith, A. D. (1985). Berkeley’s central argument against material substance. In J. Foster & H. Robinson (Eds.), Essays on Berkeley: A tercentennial celebration. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Sosa, E. (2007a). Experimental philosophy and philosophical intuition. Philosophical Studies, 132, 99–107.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Sosa, E. (2007b). Intuitions: Their nature and epistemic efficacy. Grazer Philosophische Studien, 74, 51–67.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Spellman, B. A., & Holyoak, K. J. (1996). Pragmatics in analogical mapping. Cognitive Psychology, 31, 307–346.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Spellman, B. A., Holyoak, K. J., & Morrison, R. G. (2001). Analogical priming via semantic relations. Memory and Cognition, 29, 383–393.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Spicer, F. (2007). Knowledge and the heuristics of folk psychology. In V. Hendricks & D. Pritchard (Eds.), New waves in epistemology. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Stanovich, K. E. (2011). Rationality and the reflective mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Stanovich, K., & West, R. (2008). On the relative independence of thinking biases and cognitive ability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 672–695.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Stich, S. (2012). Do different groups have different epistemic intuitions? A reply to Jennifer Nagel. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. doi:10.1111/j.1933-1592.2012.00590.x.

  122. Sullivan, K. (2007). Metaphoric extension and invited inferencing in semantic change. Culture Language and Representation, 5, 257–274.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Swain, S., Alexander, J., & Weinberg, J. (2008). The instability of philosophical intuitions: Running hot and cold on truetemp. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 76, 138–155.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Sweetser, E. (1990). From etymology to pragmatics. Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Thibodeau, P. H., & Boroditsky, L. (2011). Metaphors we think with: The role of metaphor in reasoning. PLoS ONE, 6, e16782. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016782.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Thompson, V. A., & Prowse Turner, J. A. (2011). Intuition, reason, and metacognition. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 107–140.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207–232.

    Google Scholar 

  128. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1983). Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment. Psychological Review, 90, 293–315.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Uleman, J. S., Newman, L. S., & Moskowitz, G. B. (1996). People as flexible interpreters: Evidence and issues from spontaneous trait inferences. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 211–279.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Uleman, J. S., Sairbay, S. A., & Gonzales, C. M. (2008). Spontaneous inferences, implicit impressions, and implicit theories. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 329–60.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Vogel, J. (1990). Are there counterexamples to the closure principle? In M. Ross & G. Ross (Eds.), Doubting: Contemporary perspectives on scepticism (pp. 13–27). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Volz, K. G., Schubotz, R. I., Raab, M., Schooler, L. J., Gigerenzer, G., & Cramon, D. Y. (2006). Why you think Milan is larger than Modena. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1924–36.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Wharton, C. M., Holyoak, K. J., Lange, T. E., Wickens, T. D., & Melz, E. R. (1994). Below the surface: Analogical similarity and retrieval competition in reminding. Cognitive Psychology, 26, 64–101.

    Google Scholar 

  135. Wharton, C. M., Holyoak, K. J., & Lange, T. E. (1996). Remote analogical reminding. Memory and Cognition, 24, 629–643.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Williamson, T. (2005). Contextualism, subject-sensitive invariantism and knowledge of knowledge. Philosophical Quarterly, 55, 213–35.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Williamson, T. (2007). The philosophy of philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Williamson, T. (2011). Philosophical expertise and the burden of proof. Metaphilosophy, 42, 215–229.

    Google Scholar 

  139. Wittgenstein, L. (2005). The big typescript: TS213. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

For helpful comments on previous drafts and closely related material I am indebted to John Collins, Hilary Kornblith, Jennifer Nagel, David Papineau, Finn Spicer, two anonymous referees for this journal, and audiences in Belfast, Bielefeld, Graz, and London.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eugen Fischer.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fischer, E. Philosophical intuitions, heuristics, and metaphors. Synthese 191, 569–606 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11229-013-0292-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Philosophical intuition
  • Heuristic rules
  • Conceptual metaphor
  • Analogical inference
  • Experimental philosophy
  • Cognitive epistemology
  • Epistemology of philosophy