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Perturbation Techniques for Convergence Analysis of Proximal Gradient Method and Other First-Order Algorithms via Variational Analysis


We develop new perturbation techniques for conducting convergence analysis of various first-order algorithms for a class of nonsmooth optimization problems. We consider the iteration scheme of an algorithm to construct a perturbed stationary point set-valued map, and define the perturbing parameter by the difference of two consecutive iterates. Then, we show that the calmness condition of the induced set-valued map, together with a local version of the proper separation of stationary value condition, is a sufficient condition to ensure the linear convergence of the algorithm. The equivalence of the calmness condition to the one for the canonically perturbed stationary point set-valued map is proved, and this equivalence allows us to derive some sufficient conditions for calmness by using some recent developments in variational analysis. These sufficient conditions are different from existing results (especially, those error-bound-based ones) in that they can be easily verified for many concrete application models. Our analysis is focused on the fundamental proximal gradient (PG) method, and it enables us to show that any accumulation of the sequence generated by the PG method must be a stationary point in terms of the proximal subdifferential, instead of the limiting subdifferential. This result finds the surprising fact that the solution quality found by the PG method is in general superior. Our analysis also leads to some improvement for the linear convergence results of the PG method in the convex case. The new perturbation technique can be conveniently used to derive linear rate convergence of a number of other first-order methods including the well-known alternating direction method of multipliers and primal-dual hybrid gradient method, under mild assumptions.

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The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their helpful suggestions and comments.

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Correspondence to Jin Zhang.

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The research was partially supported by NSFC No. 11871279 and 11971090, NSERC, the General Research Fund from Hong Kong Research Grants Council: 12302318, National Science Foundation of China 11971220, Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation 2019A1515011152

Appendix A

Appendix A

A.1 Proof of Lemma 2

(1) Since xk+ 1 is the optimal solution of the proximal operation (1.3) with a = xkγf(xk), we have

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} && g(x^{k+1}) + \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x^{k+1} - \left( x^{k} - \gamma \nabla f(x^{k}) \right) \right\|^{2} \le g(x^{k}) + \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| \gamma \nabla f(x^{k}) \right\|^{2}, \end{array} $$

which can be reformulated as

$$ g(x^{k+1}) + \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} + \left\langle \nabla f(x^{k}), x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\rangle - g(x^{k}) \le 0. $$

Furthermore, since ∇f(x) is globally Lipschitz continuous with the Lipschitz constant L, we have

$$ f(x^{k+1})\le f(x^{k}) + \left\langle \nabla f(x^{k}), x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\rangle + \frac{L}{2}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2}. $$

Adding the above inequality to (A.1) we obtain

$$ F(x^{k+1}) - F(x^{k}) \le \left( \frac{L}{2} - \frac{1}{2\gamma} \right) \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2}. $$

As a result if \(\gamma < \frac {1}{L}\) we have (3.1) with \(\kappa _{1} := \frac {1}{2\gamma } - \frac {L}{2}\).

(2) By the optimality of xk+ 1 we have that for any x,

$$ g(x^{k+1}) + \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} + \gamma \nabla f(x^{k}) \right\|^{2} \le g(x) + \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x - x^{k} + \gamma \nabla f(x^{k}) \right\|^{2}, $$

which can be reformulated as

$$ g(x^{k+1}) - g(x) \le \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x - x^{k} \right\|^{2} - \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} + \left\langle \nabla f(x^{k}), x - x^{k+1} \right\rangle. $$

By the Lipschitz continuity of ∇f(x),

$$ f(x) \ge f(x^{k+1}) + \left\langle \nabla f(x^{k+1}), x - x^{k+1} \right\rangle - \frac{L}{2}\left\| x - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2}. $$

By the above two inequalities we obtain

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} F(x^{k+1}) - F(x)&\le&\frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x - x^{k} \right\|^{2} - \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} + \left\langle \nabla f(x^{k}), x - x^{k+1} \right\rangle \\ && - \left\langle \nabla f(x^{k+1}), x - x^{k+1} \right\rangle + \frac{L}{2} \left\| x - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2}\\ &\le&\frac{1}{\gamma}\left\| x - x^{k+1}\right\|^{2} + \frac{1}{\gamma} \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} - \frac{1}{2\gamma}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} \\ && +\left\langle \nabla f(x^{k}) - \nabla f(x^{k+1}), x - x^{k+1} \right\rangle + \frac{L}{2} \left\| x - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2}\\ &\le&\frac{1}{\gamma}\left\| x - x^{k+1}\right\|^{2}+ \frac{1}{\gamma} \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2}-\frac{1}{2\gamma} \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} \\ && + \frac{L}{2} \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} + \frac{1}{2} \left\| x - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2} + \frac{L}{2} \left\| x - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2}\\ &=& \left( \frac{1}{\gamma} + \frac{L+1}{2} \right) \left\| x - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2} + \left( \frac{L}{2} + \frac{1}{2\gamma} \right) \left\| x^{k} - x^{k+1} \right\|^{2}, \end{array} $$

from which we can obtain (3.2) with \(\kappa _{2} := \max \limits \left \{ \left (\frac {1}{\gamma } + \frac {L+1}{2} \right ), \left (\frac {L}{2} + \frac {1}{2\gamma } \right ) \right \}\).

A.2 Proof of Theorem 5

In the proof, we denote by \(\zeta :=F(\bar x)\) for succinctness. And we recall that the proper separation of the stationary value condition holds on \(\bar {x} \in {\mathcal {X}}^{\pi }\), i.e., there exists δ > 0 such that

$$ x \in {\mathcal{X}}^{\pi}\cap {\mathbb{B}} (\bar{x},\delta )\quad \Longrightarrow \quad F(x) = F(\bar{x}). $$

Without lost of generality, we assume that 𝜖 < δ/(κ + 1) throughout the proof.

Step 1. We prove that \(\bar x\) is a stationary point and

$$ \lim_{k\rightarrow \infty} \|x^{k+1} -x^{k}\|=0. $$

Adding the inequalities in (3.1) starting from iteration k = 0 to an arbitrary positive integer K, we obtain

$$ \sum\limits_{k=0}^{K} \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} \le \frac{1}{\kappa_{1}} \left( F(x^{0}) - F(x^{K+1}) \right)\le \frac{1}{\kappa_{1}} \left( F(x^{0}) - F_{\min} \right) < \infty. $$

It follows that \({\sum }_{k=0}^{\infty } \left \| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right \|^{2} < \infty ,\) and consequently (A.3) holds. Let \(\{ x^{k_{i}} \}_{i=1}^{\infty }\) be a convergent subsequence of \(\left \{ x^{k} \right \}\) such that \(x^{k_{i}}\rightarrow \bar {x}\) as \(i\rightarrow \infty \). Then by (A.3), we have

$$ \lim_{i\rightarrow \infty} x^{k_{i}}=\lim_{i\rightarrow \infty} x^{k_{i}-1}=\bar x. $$


$$ x^{k_{i}} \in\text{Prox}_{g}^{\gamma} \left (x^{k_{i}-1} -\gamma \nabla f(x^{k_{i}-1}) \right ), $$

let \(i\rightarrow \infty \) in (A.5) and by the outer semicontinuity of \(\text {Prox}_{g}^{\gamma } (\cdot )\) (see [50, Theorem 1.25]) and continuity of ∇f, we have

$$ \bar{x}\in \text{Prox}_{g}^{\gamma} \left( \bar{x} -\gamma \nabla f(\bar{x}) \right ), $$

Using the definition of the proximal operator and applying the optimality condition and we have

$$ 0\in \nabla f \left( \bar{x}\right) + \partial^{\pi} g \left( \bar{x}\right) , $$

and so \(\bar x\in \mathcal {X}^{\pi }\).

Step 2. Given \(\hat {\epsilon } > 0\) such that \(\hat {\epsilon } < \delta /\epsilon - \kappa -1\), for each k > 0, we can find \({{\bar {x}^{k} \in \mathcal {X}^{\pi }}}\) such that

$$\left\| \bar{x}^{k} - x^{k} \right\| \le \min\left\{\sqrt{d\left( x^{k},{{{\mathcal{X}}^{\pi}}} \right)^{2} + \hat{\epsilon}\|x^{k} - x^{k-1}\|^{2}}, d\left( x^{k}, {{{\mathcal{X}}^{\pi}}} \right) + \hat{\epsilon}\|x^{k} - x^{k-1}\|\right\}.$$

It follows by the cost-to-estimate condition (3.2) we have

$$ F(x^{k}) - F(\bar{x}^{k})\le \hat{ \kappa}_{2} \left( \text{dist} \left( x^{k}, {\mathcal{X}}^{\pi} \right)^{2} + \left\| x^{k} - x^{k-1} \right\|^{2} \right), $$

with \(\hat { \kappa }_{2} = \kappa _{2}(1+\hat {\epsilon })\). Now we use the method of mathematical induction to prove that there exists k > 0 such that for all jk,

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} && x^{j}\in \mathbb{B} \left( \bar{x}, \epsilon \right),\quad x^{j+1}\in \mathbb{B} \left( \bar{x}, \epsilon \right),\quad F(\bar{x}^{j}) = \zeta ,\quad {{F(\bar{x}^{j+1}) = \zeta}}, \end{array} $$
$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} && F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta \le \hat{ \kappa}_{2} \left( \text{dist} \left( x^{j+1}, {\mathcal{X}}^{\pi} \right)^{2} + \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j} \right\|^{2} \right), \end{array} $$
$$ \sum\limits_{i=k_{\ell}}^{j} \left\| x^{i} - x^{i+1} \right\| \le \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| - \left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\|}{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right], $$

where the constant \(c:=\frac {2\sqrt {\hat { \kappa }_{2}(\kappa ^{2}+1)}}{\kappa _{1}}> 0\).

By (A.4) and the fact that F is continuous in its domain, there exists k > 0 such that \(x^{k_{\ell }}\in \mathbb {B} \left (\bar {x},\epsilon \right )\), \(x^{k_{\ell }+1}\in \mathbb {B} \left (\bar {x},\epsilon \right )\),

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} &&{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x} \right\| + \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| }{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta}\right]\le \frac{\epsilon}{2}}, \end{array} $$
$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} &&{\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\| < \frac{\epsilon}{2} , \quad \forall k \ge k_{\ell} - 1}, \end{array} $$
$$ \begin{aligned} \left\|\bar{x}^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x}\right\| &\le \left\|\bar{x}^{k_{\ell}} - x^{k_{\ell}}\right\| + \left\|x^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x}\right\| \\ &\overset{{(3.4)}}{\le} (\kappa+\hat{\epsilon}) \left\|x^{k_{\ell}} - x^{k_{\ell} - 1}\right\| + \left\|x^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x}\right\| < {(\kappa +\hat{\epsilon} + 2)\epsilon/2} < \delta, \end{aligned} $$

which indicates \(\bar {x}^{k_{\ell }}\in {{{\mathcal {X}}^{\pi }}} \cap {\mathbb {B}}\left (\bar {x},\delta \right )\). It follows by the proper separation of the stationary value condition (A.2) that \(F\left (\bar {x}^{k_{\ell }} \right ) = \zeta \).

Before inducing (A.7)–(A.9), we should get ready by showing that for jk, if (A.7) and (A.8) hold, then

$$ 2\left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\| \le c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{j}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right] + \frac{\left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\| + \left\| x^{j-1} - x^{j} \right\|}{2}. $$

Firstly, since \(x^{j}\in \mathbb {B} \left (\bar {x}, \epsilon \right )\), \(F(\bar {x}^{j}) = \zeta \) and (A.6) holds, it follows from (3.4) that

$$ F(x^{j})-\zeta\leq \hat{ \kappa}_{2}(\kappa \|x^{j}-x^{j-1}\|^{2}+ \|x^{j}-x^{j-1}\|^{2}) ={\kappa_{3}^{2}}\|x^{j}-x^{j-1}\|^{2}, $$

where \(\kappa _{3} := \sqrt {\hat { \kappa }_{2} \left (\kappa ^{2} + 1 \right )}\). Similarly, since \(x^{j+1}\in \mathbb {B} \left (\bar {x}, \epsilon \right )\) and \(F(\bar {x}^{j+1}) = \zeta \), by (A.6) and condition (3.4), we have

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta &\le&{\kappa_{3}^{2}} \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j} \right\|^{2}. \end{array} $$

As a result, we can obtain

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} \sqrt{F(x^{j}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}&=&\frac{\left( F(x^{j}) - \zeta\right) - \left( F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta\right)}{\sqrt{F(x^{j}) - \zeta} + \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}}\\ &=& \frac{F(x^{j}) -F(x^{j+1})}{\sqrt{F(x^{j}) - \zeta} + \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}}\\ &\overset{\text{(3.1)(A.46)(A.47)}}{\ge} & \frac{\kappa_{1} \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j} \right\|^{2}}{\kappa_{3}\left( \left\| x^{j} - x^{j-1} \right\| + \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j} \right\| \right)}. \end{array} $$

After defining \(c: = \frac {2\kappa _{3}}{\kappa _{1}}\), we have

$$ \left( c \left[\sqrt{F(x^{j}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right] \right)\left( \frac{\left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\| + \left\| x^{j-1} - x^{j} \right\|}{2} \right)\ge \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j} \right\|^{2}, $$

from which by applying \(ab\le \left (\frac {a+b}{2} \right )^{2}\) we establish (A.12).

Next we proceed to prove the three properties (A.7)–(A.9) by induction on j. For j = k, we have

$$ x^{k_{\ell}}\in \mathbb{B} \left( \bar{x}, \epsilon \right),\quad x^{k_{\ell}+1}\in \mathbb{B} \left( \bar{x}, \epsilon \right),\quad F(\bar{x}^{k_{\ell}}) = \zeta, $$

and similar to the estimate of \(\left \|\bar {x}^{k_{\ell }} - \bar {x}\right \|\), we can show

$$ \left\| \bar{x}^{k_{\ell}+1} - \bar{x} \right\| \le \delta. $$

It follows by (A.2) that \(F(\bar {x}^{k_{\ell }+1}) = \zeta \), and hence by (A.6),

$$ F(x^{k_{\ell}+1}) - \zeta \le \hat{ \kappa}_{2} \left( \text{dist} \left( x^{k_{\ell}+1}, {{{\mathcal{X}}^{\pi}}} \right)^{2} + \left\| x^{k_{\ell}+1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\|^{2} \right), $$

which is (A.8) with j = k. Note that property (A.9) for j = k can be obtained directly through (A.12).

Now suppose (A.7) (A.8) and (A.9) hold for certain j > k. By induction we also want to show that (A.7) (A.8) and (A.9) hold for j + 1. We have

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} \left\| x^{j+2} - \bar{x} \right\|&\le& \left\| x^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x} \right\| + {\sum}_{i={k_{\ell}}}^{j} \left\| x^{i} - x^{i+1} \right\| + \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j+2} \right\| \\ &<& \left\| x^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x} \right\| + \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| - \left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\|}{2}\\ && + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right] + \frac{\epsilon}{2} \\ &\le& \left\| x^{k_{\ell}} - \bar{x} \right\| + \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| }{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta}\right] + \frac{\epsilon}{2} \le \epsilon, \end{array} $$

where the second inequality follows from (A.9) and (A.11) and the last inequality follows from (A.10). Since \(x^{j+2}\in \mathbb {B}(\bar x, \epsilon )\), by the definition of \(\bar {x}^{j}\) and (3.4), there holds that

$$\begin{aligned} \left\| \bar{x}^{j+2} - \bar{x} \right\| &\le \| \bar{x}^{j+2} - x^{j+2} \| + \| x^{j+2} - \bar{x} \| \\ &\le (\kappa+\hat{\epsilon})\| x^{j+2} - x^{j+1} \| + \epsilon \\ & < (\kappa +\hat{\epsilon} +2)\epsilon/2 < \delta, \end{aligned}$$

where the third inequality follows from (A.11). It follows from the proper separation of stationary value assumption (A.2) that \(F(\bar {x}^{j+2}) = \zeta \). Consequently by (A.6), we have

$$ F(x^{j+2}) - \zeta \le \hat{ \kappa}_{2} \left( \text{dist} \left( x^{j+2}, {{{\mathcal{X}}^{\pi}}} \right)^{2} + \left\| x^{j+2} - x^{j+1} \right\|^{2} \right). $$

So far we have shown that (A.7)-(A.8) hold for j + 1. Moreover

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} && \sum\limits_{i=k_{\ell}}^{j+1} \left\| x^{i} - x^{i+1} \right\| \\ &\overset{\text{(A.42)}}{\le}& \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| - \left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\|}{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right] \\ && + \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j+2} \right\|\\ &\overset{\text{(A.45)}}{\le}& \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| - \left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\|}{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right] \\ && + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+2}) - \zeta}\right] + \frac{\left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j+2} \right\| + \left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\|}{2}\\ && - \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j+2} \right\|\\ &=& \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| - \left\| x^{j+1} - x^{j+2} \right\|}{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+2}) - \zeta}\right], \end{array} $$

from which we obtain (A.9) for j + 1. The desired induction on j is now complete. In summary, we have now proved the properties (A.7)–(A.9).

Step 3. We prove that the whole sequence {xk} converges to \(\bar x\) and (3.5)–(3.6) hold.

By (A.9), for all jk

$$ \begin{aligned} \sum\limits_{i=k_{\ell}}^{j} \left\| x^{i} - x^{i+1} \right\| &\le \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\| - \left\| x^{j} - x^{j+1} \right\|}{2} + c\left[\sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} - \sqrt{F(x^{j+1}) - \zeta}\right]\\ &\le \frac{\left\| x^{k_{\ell}-1} - x^{k_{\ell}} \right\|}{2} + c \sqrt{F(x^{k_{\ell}}) - \zeta} < \infty, \end{aligned} $$

which indicates that \(\left \{ x^{k} \right \}\) is a Cauchy sequence. It follows that the whole sequence converges to the stationary point \(\bar {x}\). Further for all kk, we have \(x^{k}\in \mathbb {B}(\bar {x},\epsilon )\). As a result, the PG-iteration-based error bound condition (3.4) holds on all the iteration points \(\left \{ x^{k} \right \}_{k > k_{\ell }}\). Recall that by (3.1) and (A.14), we have

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} F(x^{k+1}) - F(x^{k}) &\le & -\kappa_{1}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2}, \\ F(x^{k+1}) - \zeta &\le & \hat{ \kappa}_{2} \left( \kappa^{2} + 1 \right)\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2} , \end{array} $$

which implies that

$$ F(x^{k}) - F(x^{k+1})\ge \frac{\kappa_{1}}{\hat{ \kappa}_{2}\left( \kappa^{2} + 1 \right)} \left( F(x^{k+1}) - \zeta\right). $$

We can observe easily that

$$ F(x^{k}) - \zeta + \zeta - F(x^{k+1})\ge \frac{\kappa_{1}}{\hat{ \kappa}_{2}\left( \kappa^{2} + 1 \right)} \left( F(x^{k+1}) - \zeta\right). $$

Thus we have

$$ F(x^{k+1}) - \zeta \le \sigma \left( F(x^{k}) - \zeta\right), \text{with } \sigma := \frac{1}{1 + \frac{\kappa_{1}}{\hat{ \kappa}_{2}\left( \kappa^{2} + 1 \right)}} < 1, $$

which completes the proof of (3.5).

Inspired by [6], we have following linear convergence result for sequence {xk}. Recall the sufficient descent property (3.1),

$$F(x^{k+1}) - F(x^{k}) \le -\kappa_{1}\left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\|^{2},$$

which indicates that there exists a constant C such that

$$ \left\| x^{k+1} - x^{k} \right\| \le \sqrt{ \frac{1}{\kappa_{1}} \left( F(x^{k}) - F(x^{k+1}) \right) }\le \sqrt{ \frac{1}{\kappa_{1}} \left( F(x^{k}) - \zeta \right) }\le C \sqrt{\sigma}^{k}. $$

In addition, we have that

$$ \left\| x^{k} - \bar{x} \right\| \le {\sum}_{i=k}^{\infty} \left\| x^{i} - x^{i+1} \right\|\le {\sum}_{i=k}^{\infty} C\sqrt{\sigma}^{i} \le \frac{C}{1-\sqrt{\sigma}} \sqrt{\sigma}^{k}, $$

which implies (3.6) with \(\rho _{0} = \frac {C}{1-\sqrt {\sigma }}\).

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Wang, X., Ye, J.J., Yuan, X. et al. Perturbation Techniques for Convergence Analysis of Proximal Gradient Method and Other First-Order Algorithms via Variational Analysis. Set-Valued Var. Anal 30, 39–79 (2022).

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  • Calmness
  • Error bound
  • Proximal gradient method
  • Linear convergence
  • Variational analysis
  • Alternating direction method of multipliers

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010)

  • 90C52
  • 49J52
  • 49J53