Parallel query execution over encrypted data in database-as-a-service (DaaS)

Abstract

The main challenge in database-as-a-service is the security and privacy of data because service providers are not usually considered as trustworthy. So, the data must be encrypted before storing into the database. Another challenge arises that the performance is degraded on the deployment of encryption algorithm on runtime. Furthermore, the connectivity through the Internet adds more delay. To tackle this, we have proposed parallel query execution methodology using multithreading technique up to 6 threads. We have conducted experiments up to 1000,000 (1 million) encrypted records. Our results are quite promising. For data encryption/decryption, we have used advance encryption standard with blocking length of 256 bits. We have designed our methodology in the context of parallel computation method proposed in the literature (Ho et al., in: Proceedings of the 2017 international conference on machine learning and soft computing, pp 47–52, 2017). We compared the results with state-of-art algorithms. The state-of-art algorithms execute the experiments on 10,120 encrypted records maximum which took about time of 1000 ms with 2 threads. But the proposed methodology is proved outstanding that executed the experiments which were performed on 100,000 encrypted records. It outperformed with 6 threads which took only 507 ms even with 2 threads, and the proposed methodology is much better which took only 994 ms. So, the efficiency and scalability of the proposed methodology are proved better as compared to state-of-the-art algorithms.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Ho KG, Vu L, Nguyen NH, Nguyen HM (2017) Speed up querying encrypted data on outsourced database. In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Machine Learning and Soft Computing, pp 47–52

  2. 2.

    Bendre MR, Thool VR (2016) Analytics, challenges and applications in big data environment: a survey. J Manag Anal 3:206–239

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Skourletopoulos G, Mavromoustakis CX, Mastorakis G, Batalla JM, Dobre C, Panagiotakis S, et al. (2017) Big Data and cloud computing: a survey of the state-of-the-art and research challenges. In: Advances in mobile cloud computing and big data in the 5G Era, ed: Springer, pp 23–41

  4. 4.

    Yang C, Huang Q, Li Z, Liu K, Hu F (2017) Big Data and cloud computing: innovation opportunities and challenges. Int J Digital Earth 10:13–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Olle TW (2003) Database management system (DBMS). Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Sumathi S, Esakkirajan S (2007) Structured query language. Fundamentals of Relational Database Management Systems, pp 111–212

  7. 7.

    Hacigumus H, Iyer B, Mehrotra S (2003) Providing database as a service. In: 18th International Conference on Data Engineering, Proceedings, 2002, pp 29–38

  8. 8.

    Alzain MA, Pardede E (2011) Using multi shares for ensuring privacy in database-as-a-service. In: 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference On System Sciences (HICSS), pp 1–9

  9. 9.

    Mykletun E, Tsudik G (2006) Aggregation queries in the database-as-a-service model. In: DBSec, pp 89–103

  10. 10.

    Hacigümüş H, Iyer B, Mehrotra S (2004) Ensuring the integrity of encrypted databases in the database-as-a-service model. In: Data and Applications Security XVII, pp 61–74

  11. 11.

    Mahboubi S, Akbarinia R, Valduriez P (2017) Top-k query processing over outsourced encrypted data. INRIA Sophia Antipolis-Méditerranée

  12. 12.

    Hacigumus VH (2003) Privacy in database-as-a-service model

  13. 13.

    Hacigümüş H, Iyer B, Li C, Mehrotra S (2002) Executing SQL over encrypted data in the database-service-provider model. In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 2002, pp 216–227

  14. 14.

    Sesay S, Yang Z, Chen J, Xu D (2005) A secure database encryption scheme. In: Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2005. CCNC. Second IEEE, 2005, pp 49–53

  15. 15.

    Chen D, Zhao H (2012) Data security and privacy protection issues in cloud computing. In: International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012, pp 647–651

  16. 16.

    Xia X, Li Y, Xia Z, Wang R (2009) Data encryption based on multi-granularity reversible cellular automata. In: International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, 2009. CIS’09, pp 192–196

  17. 17.

    Yang B, Wu K, Karri R (2004) Scan based side channel attack on dedicated hardware implementations of data encryption standard. In: International Test Conference, 2004. Proceedings. ITC, pp 339–344

  18. 18.

    Webb CF (2008) IBM z10: the next-generation mainframe microprocessor. IEEE Micro 28:19–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bruni P, Becker P, Favero W, Kalyanasundaram R, Keenan A, Knoll S, et al. (2012) Optimizing Db2 Queries with Ibm Db2 Analytics Accelerator for Z/os: IBM Redbooks

  20. 20.

    Nadeem A, Javed MY (2005) A performance comparison of data encryption algorithms. In: First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies, 2005. ICICT, pp 84–89

  21. 21.

    Bellare M, Boldyreva A, O’Neill A (2007) Deterministic and efficiently searchable encryption. Adv Cryptol CRYPTO 2007:535–552

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Agrawal R, Kiernan J, Srikant R, Xu Y (2004) Order preserving encryption for numeric data. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp 563–574

  23. 23.

    Sivathanu G, Wright CP, Zadok E (2005) Ensuring data integrity in storage: techniques and applications. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Workshop on Storage Security and Survivability, pp 26–36

  24. 24.

    Martinenghi D (2005) Advanced techniques for efficient data integrity checking. Roskilde University, Department of Computer Science, Roskilde

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Huth CL, Chadwick DW, Claycomb WR, You I (2013) Guest editorial: a brief overview of data leakage and insider threats. Inf Syst Front 15:1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Curino C, Jones EP, Popa RA, Malviya N, Wu E, Madden S, et al. (2011) Relational cloud: a database-as-a-service for the cloud

  27. 27.

    Popa RA, Li FH, Zeldovich N (2013) An ideal-security protocol for order-preserving encoding. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), 2013, pp 463–477

  28. 28.

    Boldyreva A, Chenette N, Lee Y, O’neill A (2009) Order-preserving symmetric encryption. In: Eurocrypt, pp 224–241

  29. 29.

    Gentry C (2009) Fully homomorphic encryption using ideal lattices. STOC 9:169–178

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Van Dijk M, Gentry C, Halevi S, Vaikuntanathan V (2010) Fully homomorphic encryption over the integers. In: Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pp 24–43

  31. 31.

    Popa RA, Redfield C, Zeldovich N, Balakrishnan H (2011) CryptDB: protecting confidentiality with encrypted query processing. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, pp 85–100

  32. 32.

    Popa RA, Redfield C, Zeldovich N, Balakrishnan H (2012) CryptDB: processing queries on an encrypted database. Commun ACM 55:103–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Popa RA, Zeldovich N, Balakrishnan H (2011) CryptDB: a practical encrypted relational DBMS

  34. 34.

    Agrawal D, El Abbadi A, Emekci F, Metwally A (2009) Database management as a service: challenges and opportunities. In: IEEE 25th International Conference on Data Engineering. ICDE’09. 2009, pp 1709–1716

  35. 35.

    Li J, Liu Z, Chen X, Xhafa F, Tan X, Wong DS (2015) L-EncDB: a lightweight framework for privacy-preserving data queries in cloud computing. Knowl Based Syst 79:18–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    M. Bellare, T. Ristenpart, P. Rogaway, and T. Stegers, “Format-Preserving Encryption,” in Selected Areas in Cryptography, 2009, pp. 295-312

  37. 37.

    Li J, Wang Q, Wang C, Cao N, Ren K, Lou W (2010) Fuzzy keyword search over encrypted data in cloud computing. INFOCOM Proc IEEE 2010:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Fu Z, Wu X, Guan C, Sun X, Ren K (2016) Toward efficient multi-keyword fuzzy search over encrypted outsourced data with accuracy improvement. IEEE Trans Inf Forensics Secur 11:2706–2716

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Byham (2017) HASHBYTES (Transact-SQL). https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/functions/hashbytes-transact-sql

  40. 40.

    Hamalainen P, Alho T, Hannikainen M, Hamalainen TD (2006) Design and implementation of low-area and low-power AES encryption hardware core. In: 9th EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design: Architectures, Methods and Tools, DSD 2006, pp 577–583

  41. 41.

    Zhang Q, Li S, Xu J (2014) QScheduler: a tool for parallel query processing in database systems. In: 19th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS), 2014, pp 73–76

  42. 42.

    Huang Y-F, Chen W-C (2015) Parallel query on the in-memory database in a CUDA platform. In: 10th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC), 2015, pp 236–243

  43. 43.

    Hemme L, Hoffmann L (2011) Differential fault analysis on the SHA1 compression function. In: Workshop on Fault Diagnosis and Tolerance in Cryptography (FDTC), 2011, pp 54–62

  44. 44.

    Byham (2017) Encryption Hierarchy. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/security/encryption/encryption-hierarchy

  45. 45.

    Task Class (System.Threading.Tasks) (2017). https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.threading.tasks.task(v=vs.110).aspx

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Asif Habib.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahmad, A., Ahmad, M., Habib, M.A. et al. Parallel query execution over encrypted data in database-as-a-service (DaaS). J Supercomput 75, 2269–2288 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-019-02831-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Database-as-a-service (DaaS)
  • Outsourced database
  • Querying encrypted data
  • Parallel processing
  • Multithreading in DaaS