Reducing the upfront cost of private clouds with clairvoyant virtual machine placement


Although public clouds still occupy the largest portion of the total cloud infrastructure, private clouds are attracting increasing interest from both industry and academia because of their better security and privacy control. According to the existing studies, the high upfront cost is among the most critical challenges associated with private clouds. To reduce cost and improve performance, virtual machine placement (VMP) methods have been extensively investigated; however, few of these methods have focused on private clouds. This paper proposes a heterogeneous and multidimensional clairvoyant dynamic bin-packing model, in which the scheduler can conduct more efficient VMP processes using additional information on the arrival time and duration of virtual machines to reduce the datacenter scale and thereby decrease the upfront cost of private clouds. In addition, a novel branch-and-bound algorithm with a divide-and-conquer strategy (DCBB) is proposed to effectively and efficiently handle the derived problem. One state-of-the-art and several classic VMP methods are also modified to adapt to the proposed model to observe their performance and compare with our proposed algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real-world and synthetic workloads to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that DCBB delivers near-optimal solutions with a convergence rate that is much faster than those of the other search-based algorithms evaluated. In particular, DCBB yields the optimal solution for a real-world workload with an execution time that is an order of magnitude shorter than that required by the original branch-and-bound algorithm.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hongwei Liu.

Additional information

The work described in this paper was supported by the National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) under Grant 2013AA01A215 and the National Laboratory of High-effect Server and Storage Techniques under Grant 2014HSSA05.

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Zhao, Y., Liu, H., Wang, Y. et al. Reducing the upfront cost of private clouds with clairvoyant virtual machine placement. J Supercomput 75, 340–369 (2019).

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  • Virtual machine placement
  • Dynamic bin packing
  • Private cloud computing
  • Resource management