The Journal of Supercomputing

, Volume 72, Issue 8, pp 3261–3280 | Cite as

Regulations and latency-aware load distribution of web applications in Multi-Clouds



Cloud data centres have become the preferred hosting environment for large-scale web-facing applications. They allow unprecedented scalability in response to a dynamic and unpredictable workload. However, many applications need to scale beyond the boundaries of a single data centre to multiple geographically dispersed clouds sites (i.e. a Multi-Cloud) to provide regulatory compliance, better Quality of Experience (QoE) and increased fault tolerance. In this work, we introduce a flexible framework which allows interactive web applications to utilise a Multi-Cloud environment. It redirects users to suitable cloud sites considering the latency and regulatory constraints. Regulatory requirements are specified via a flexible and simple domain-specific model, which is then interpreted by a rule inference engine. We conducted an experimental evaluation of the proposed system using services of ten cloud sites/data centres located in five continents and offered by two cloud providers, namely Amazon and NeCTAR. The results show that our approach minimises latency, is fault tolerant, and meets all stated regulatory requirements with negligible performance overhead.


Cloud computing Multi-Cloud Web applications 



We thank Rodrigo Calheiros, Amir Vahid Dastjerdi, Adel Nadjaran Toosi and the rest of the CLOUDS lab members for their comments on improving the paper. We also thank, Inc. and the NeCTAR research cloud for providing access to their infrastructure for conducting the experiments reported in this paper.


  1. 1.
    Aarsten A, Brugali D, Menga G (1996) Patterns for three-tier client/server applications. In: Proceedings of Pattern Languages of Programs (PLoP)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amazon (2012) Summary of the Amazon EC2 and Amazon RDS Service Disruption.
  3. 3.
    Amazon (2012) Summary of the AWS Service Event in the US East Region.
  4. 4.
    Amazon (2013) Amazon Route 53.
  5. 5.
    Amazon (2013) Elastic load balancing.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Amazon (2015) AWS PCI DSS Level 1 FAQs.
  8. 8.
    Ardagna D, Di Nitto E, Mohagheghi P, Mosser S, Ballagny C, D’Andria F, Casale G, Matthews P, Nechifor C, Petcu D, Gericke A, Sheridan C (2012) Modaclouds: a model-driven approach for the design and execution of applications on multiple clouds. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Modeling in Software Engineering (MISE), pp. 50–56Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Armbrust M, Fox A, Griffith R, Joseph AD, Katz R, Konwinski A, Lee G, Patterson D, Rabkin A, Stoica I, Zaharia M (2010) A view of cloud computing. Commun ACM 53(4):50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Australian Government, Department of Communications (2014) Cloud Computing Regulatory Stock Take. Report Version 1Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buyya R, Broberg J, Goscinski A (eds) (2011) Legal issues in cloud computing. Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms, chap. 24, Wiley Press, pp 593–613Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brewer E (2000) Towards Robust Distributed Systems. In: Proceedings of the Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, vol. 19, ACM, New York, pp 7–10Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brewer E (2012) CAP twelve years later: how the rules have changed. Computer 45(2):23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buyya R, Yeo CS, Venugopal S, Broberg J, Brandic I (2009) Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility. Future Gener Comp Syst 25(6):599–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carlini E, Coppola M, Dazzi P, Ricci L, Righetti G (2012) Cloud Federations in Contrail. In: Alexander Mea (ed.) Proceedings of Euro-Par 2011: Parallel Processing Workshops, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7155, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 159–168Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cattell R (2010) Scalable SQL and NoSQL data stores. SIGMOD Record 39(4):12–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Corbett JC, Dean J, Epstein M, Fikes A, Frost C, Furman JJ, Ghemawat S, Gubarev A, Heiser C, Hochschild P, Hsieh W, Kanthak S, Kogan E, Li H, Lloyd A, Melnik S, Mwaura D, Nagle D, Quinlan S, Rao R, Rolig L, Saito Y, Szymaniak M, Taylor C, Wang R, Woodford D (2013) Spanner: Google’s globally distributed database. ACM Trans Comp Syst 31(3):8:1–8:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ebay (2013) Ebay.
  19. 19.
    European Parliament (2015) Data Protection Directive (95/46/EC).
  20. 20.
    Ferrer AJ, Hernández F, Tordsson J, Elmroth E, Ali-Eldin A, Zsigri C, Sirvent R, Guitart J, Badia RM, Djemame K, Ziegler W, Dimitrakos T, Nair SK, Kousiouris G, Konstanteli K, Varvarigou T, Hudzia B, Kipp A, Wesner S, Corrales M, Forgó N, Sharif T, Sheridan C (2012) OPTIMIS: a holistic approach to cloud service provisioning. Future Gener Comp Syst 28(1):66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fowler M (2003) Patterns of enterprise application architecture. Addison-Wesley Professional, Boston, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    GeoLite (2013) GeoLite2 Free Downloadable Databases.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    Google (2015) Google Guava.
  25. 25.
    Grozev N, Buyya R (2012) Inter-cloud architectures and application brokering: taxonomy and survey. Softw Pract Exp 44(3):369–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grozev N, Buyya R (2014) Multi-cloud provisioning and load distribution for three-tier applications. ACM Trans Auton Adap Syst 9(3):13:1–13:21Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    IBM (2013) IBM takes Australian Open data onto private cloud. Tech. rep., IBMGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Liu CY, Huang KC, Lee YH, Lai KC (2015) Efficient resource allocation mechanism for federated clouds. Int J Grid High Perform Comp 7(4):74–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ma Y, Wang S, Hung PCK, Hsu CH, Sun Q, Yang F (2015) A highly accurate prediction algorithm for unknown web service QoS values. IEEE Trans Serv Comp PP(99):1–14Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mell P, Grance T (2011) The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing. Special Publication 800-145, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mont M, Pearson S, Bramhall P (2003) Towards accountable management of identity and privacy: sticky policies and enforceable tracing services. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, pp 377–382Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mowbray M, Pearson S (2009) A client-based privacy manager for cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the 4th International ICST Conference on COMmunication System softWAre and middlewaRE (COMSWARE), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 5:1–5:8Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    OASIS (2015) Extensible access control markup language (XACML) Version 3.0.
  35. 35.
    OAuth (2015) OAuth.
  36. 36.
    OpenID Foundation (2015) OpenID.
  37. 37.
    Pawluk P, Simmons B, Smit M, Litoiu M, Mankovski S (2012) Introducing STRATOS: a cloud broker service. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    PCI Security Standards Council (2015) PCI-DSS.
  39. 39.
    Pearson S (2009) Taking account of privacy when designing cloud computing services. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges of Cloud Computing (ICSE). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp 44–52Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pearson S, Benameur A (2010) Privacy, security and trust issues arising from cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), pp 693–702Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Petcu D (2013) Multi-cloud: expectations and current approaches. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multi-cloud Applications and Federated Clouds (MultiCloud). ACM, New York, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Petcu D, Crǎciun C, Neagul M, Panica S, Di Martino B, Venticinque S, Rak M, Aversa R (2011) Architecturing a sky computing platform. In: Cezon M, Wolfsthal Y (eds) Proceedings of the International Conference Towards a Service-Based Internet ServiceWave’10, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6569, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ping ER (2013) Ping end-to-end reporting.
  44. 44.
    Ramirez AO (2000) Three-Tier Architecture. Linux Journal 2000(75):Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Red Hat (2015) Drools.
  46. 46.
    Wang S, Hsu CH, Liang Z, Sun Q, Yang F (2013) Multi-user web service selection based on multi-QoS prediction. Inform Syst Front 16(1):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory, Department of Computing and Information SystemsThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations