This paper presents a novel digital image watermarking (DIW) scheme. This DIW scheme is based on a hybrid DWT-SVD transform domain and modified whale optimization algorithm (MWOA), making use of multiscale factors (MSFs) to control the trade-off between invisibility and robustness. The values of MSFs have been determined using MWOA, which is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm inspired by the bubble-net hunting strategy of humpback whales. The essential feature of modified WOA is that it provides a global solution and also requires less internal parameters for optimization. Normalized cross-correlation and peak signal to noise ratio are utilized in the objective function design. Results of simulations show that the proposed DIW scheme not only satisfies the need for invisibility but also has better or comparable robustness as compared to other recently published watermarking methods.
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Maloo, S., Kumar, M. & Lakshmi, N. A Modified Whale Optimization Algorithm Based Digital Image Watermarking Approach. Sens Imaging 21, 26 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11220-020-00291-6