Different goals for different folks: a cross-cultural study of achievement goals across nine cultures
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Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural groups. Adopting a universalist approach with regard to the role of culture on motivation, we found evidence for both cultural similarities and differences. In terms of cross-cultural similarities, we found that the four-factor goal structure was replicated and that mastery goal was associated with adaptive outcomes across most of the cultures examined. In terms of cross-cultural differences, we found that the association of performance, social, and extrinsic goals to valued educational outcomes varied as a function of context. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
KeywordsPersonal investment theory Culture and motivation Social goal Extrinsic goal Achievement goal
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