Advertisement

Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 389–407 | Cite as

Academic expectations as sources of stress in Asian students

  • Joyce Beiyu Tan
  • Shirley Yates
Article

Abstract

Education is highly valued in Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) countries such as China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and Korea but the expectations of parents, teachers and students themselves to excel academically can also be a source of intense stress for many students. The Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI), developed by Ang and Huan (Educ Psychol Meas 66: 522–539, 2006) to measure parent, teacher and self expectations as sources of academic stress in Asian adolescents, was administered to 176 Singaporean secondary and college students one month before their major examinations. Rasch analyses of the students’ responses to the AESI showed the nine items in the inventory formed a robust unidimensional scale of academic stress, with two separate unidimensional subscales of Expectations of Parents and Teachers and Expectations of Self complementing the factor analysis conducted by Ang and Huan (Educ Psychol Meas 66: 522–539, 2006). The item thresholds showed the AESI measured the student trait range adequately, and affirmed the inventory as a brief yet valid measure of academic stress for Asian students from a CHC background. The AESI is a valuable tool for teachers and researchers, as it provides an understanding of the role of parents, teachers and self expectations as sources of academic stress among students from a CHC background.

Keywords

AESI Expectations of parents and teachers Expectations of self Rasch analysis Singapore 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams R. J., Khoo S. T. (1993) Quest-the interactive test analysis system. ACER, Hawthorn, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson L. W. (1994) Attitude measures. In: Husén T. (ed.) The international encyclopedia of education, Vol. 1. (2nd ed.) Pergamon, Oxford, pp 380–390Google Scholar
  3. Ang R. P., Huan V. S. (2006) Academic expectations stress inventory (AESI): Development, factor analysis, reliability and validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement 66: 522–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ang R. P, Huan V. S., Braman O. R. (2007) Factorial structure and invariance of the academic expectations stress inventory across Hispanic and Chinese adolescent samples. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 38: 73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biggs J., Watkins D. (1996) The Chinese learner in retrospect. In: Watkins D. A., Biggs J. B. (eds) The Chinese learner: Cultural psychological and contextual influences. CERC and ACER, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  6. Bond T. G., Fox C. M. (2007) Applying the Rasch model. Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. (2nd ed). Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchmann C., Dalton B. (2002) International influences and educational aspirations in 12 countries: The importance of institutional context. Sociology of Education 75: 99–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Callingham R., Bond T. (2006) Research in mathematics education and Rasch measurement. Mathematics Education Research Journal 18(2): 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell R. T. (1983) Status attainment research: End of the beginning or beginning of the end?. Sociology of Education 56: 47–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen C., Stevenson H. (1995) Motivation and mathematics achievement: A comparative study of Asian-American, Caucasian-American, and East Asian high school students. Child Development 66: 1215–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung R. C.-Y., Walkey F. (1989) Educational and achievement aspirations of New Zealand Chinese and European secondary school students. Youth and Society 21(2): 139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Curtis D. D., Boman P. (2007) X-ray your data with Rasch. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives 8(2): 249–259Google Scholar
  13. De Vet H. C. W., Adèr H. J., Terwee C. B., Pouwer F. (2005) Response. Quality of Life Research 14: 1223–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edelen M. O., Reeve B. B. (2007) Applying item response theory (IRT) modeling to questionnaire development, evaluation and refinement. Quality of Life Research 16(Suppl. 1): 5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox C. M., Jones J. A. (1998) Uses of Rasch modeling in counselling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45: 30–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Genshaft J., Broyles J. (1991) Stress management with the gifted adolescent. In: Bireley M., Genshaft J. (eds) Understanding the gifted adolescent: Educational, development and multicultural issues. Teachers College Press, New York, pp 76–87Google Scholar
  17. Hambleton R. K., Cook L. L. (1977) Latent trait models and their use in the analysis of educational test data. Journal of Educational Measurement 14(2): 75–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ho D. Y. F., Kang T. K. (1984) Intergenerational comparisons of child-rearing attitudes and practices in Hong Kong. Developmental Psychology 20: 1004–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ho K. C., Yip J. (2003) YOUTH.sg: The state of youth in Singapore. National Youth Council, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  20. Hofsteded G. (1986) Cultural differences in teaching and learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 10: 301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huan V. S., Yeo L. S., Ang R. P., Chong W. H. (2008) The impact of adolescent concerns on their academic stress. Educational Review 60(2): 169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Isralowitz R. E., Ong T. H. (1990) Singapore youth: The impact of social status on perceptions of adolescent problems. Adolescence 25: 357–362Google Scholar
  23. Jones R. W. (1993) Gender-specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. Psychological Reports 72: 739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kao G., Tienda M. (1998) Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education 106: 349–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lau S., Nicholls J. G., Thorkildsen T. A., Patashnick M. (2000) Chinese and American adolescents’ perceptions of the purposes of education and beliefs about the world of work. Social Behaviour and Personality 28: 73–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lazarus R., Folkman S. (1984) Stress, appraisal and coping. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee W. O. (1996) The cultural context for Chinese learners: Conception of learning in Confucian Tradition. In: Watkins D. A., Biggs J. B. (eds) The Chinese learner: Cultural psychological and contextual influences. CERC and ACER, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  28. Lew J. (2006) Asian American in class. Teacher College Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Linacre J. M. (1999) Category disordering vs step (threshold) disordering. Rasch Measurement Transactions 13: 675Google Scholar
  30. Masters G. N. (1982) A Rasch model for partial credit scoring. Psychometrika 47: 149–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McGuire D. P., Mitic W. (1987) Perceived stress in adolescents: What normal teenagers worry about. Canada’s Mental Health 35: 2–5Google Scholar
  32. Nunnally J. C., Bernstein I. H. (1994) Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  33. Rasch G. (1960) Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Danmarks Paedogogiske Insitut, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  34. Reise S. P., Widaman K. F., Pugh R. H. (1993) Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin 114: 552–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Robotham D., Julian C. (2006) Stress and higher education student: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Further and Higher Education 30(2): 107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ross S. E., Niebling B. C., Heckert T. M. (1999) Sources of stress among students. College Student Journal 33(2): 312–317Google Scholar
  37. Salili F., Chiu C. Y., Lai S. (2001) The influence of culture and context on students’ motivational orientation and performance. In: Salili F., Chiu C. Y., Hong Y. Y. (eds) Student motivation: The culture and context of learning. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 221–248Google Scholar
  38. Schneider B., Lee Y. (1990) A model for academic success: The school and home environment of East Asian students. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 21(4): 358–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scollon R., Scollon S. W. (1995) Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Shek D. T. L. (1995) Adolescent mental health in different Chinese societies. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 8: 117–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sue S., Okazaki S. (1990) Asian-American educational achievements: A phenomenon in search of an explanation. American Psychologist 45: 913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Volet S. (1996) Chinese students at an Australian university: Adaptability and continuity. In: Watkins D. A., Biggs J. B. (eds) The Chinese learner: Cultural psychological and contextual influences. CERC and ACER, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  43. Wong J., Salili F., Ho S. Y., Mak K. H., Lai M. K., Lam T. H. (2005) The perceptions of adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. School Psychology International 26: 371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wright B. D., Stone M. H. (1979) Best test design: Rasch measurement. Mesa Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. Wright B. D., Masters G. N. (1982) Rating scale analysis. MESA Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  46. Wright B. D. (1999) Fundamental measurement for psychology. In: Embretson S. E., Hershberger S. L. (eds) The new rules of measurement: What every psychologist and educator should know. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp 65–104Google Scholar
  47. Yeh C. J., Huang K. (1996) The collectivistic nature of ethnic identity development among Asian-American college students. Adolescence 31: 645–662Google Scholar
  48. Zumbo B. D., Koh K. H. (2005) Manifestation of differences in item-level characteristics in scale-level measurement invariance tests of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods 4(1): 275–282Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations