Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 435–461 | Cite as

Organizational expectations of the novice teacher

  • Isaac A. FriedmanEmail author


The study focuses on the teacher as an “organization person”, that is, a professional working in an organizational setting, and forms part of its administrative and human fabric. The purpose of the article is to describe the novice teacher’s expectations from teaching as a profession and from the school as a work organization. The novice teachers who participated in trainee programs at five large teacher training colleges in Israel, completed a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire items expressed teachers’ expectations of their work at the outset of their professional career. Facet Theory was the methodological approach used for the study. It was found that novice teachers’ expectations focus on the following areas of interest and activity expectations of professional and social recognition; expectations of responsive conduct on the part of students; of involvement and support from parents, and of collegiality from other staff, parents and the principal; and expectations that teaching and those associated with it will contribute to strengthening the teacher’s professional sense of self. The findings were also examined based on self-psychology perspectives. The article discusses the implications of these expectations pertaining to teacher training.


Novice teachers Teacher expectations Teacher education School Culture Facet Theory 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alderfer, C.P. 1972Existence, relatedness, and growthFree PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Billingsley, B.S., Cross, L.H. 1992Predictors of commitment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in teaching: A comparison of general and specia1 educatorsThe Journal of Special Education25451453Google Scholar
  3. Billingsley, B.S., Tech, V. 1993Teacher retention and attrition in special and general education: A critical review of the literatureThe Journal of Special Education27137174Google Scholar
  4. Borg, I., Shye, S. 1995Facet theory: Form and content.Sage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Brenner, S.D., Sorbom, D., Wallius, E. 1985The stress chain: A longitudinal study of teacher stress, coping and social supportJournal of Occupational Psychology58114Google Scholar
  6. Brissie, J.S., Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Bassler, O.C. 1988Individual situational contributors to teacher burnoutJournal of Educational Research8106112Google Scholar
  7. Bryne, J.J. 1998Teachers as hunger artist: Burnout: Its causes, effects and remediesContemporary Education698692Google Scholar
  8. Canter, D. 1985Facet theory: Approaches to social researchPeter LangNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Cherniss, C. 1980Professional burnout in human service organizationsPragerNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Cherniss, C. 1988Observed supervisory behavior and teacher burnout in special educationExceptional Children54449454Google Scholar
  11. Cherniss, C., Egnatios, E., Wacker, S., & O’Dowd, W. (1979). The professional mystic and burnout in public sector professionals. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, L.M., Higgins, K.M., Ambrose, D. 1999Educators under Seige: The killing of the teaching professionThe Educational Forum63127137Google Scholar
  13. Combs, A.W., Blume, R.A., Newman, A.J., Wass, H.L. 1981The professional education of teachers.University of FloridaGainsville, FL.Google Scholar
  14. Conley, S.C., Bacharach, S.B., Bauer, S. 1989The school work environment and teacher career dissatisfactionEducational Administration Quarterly255881Google Scholar
  15. Cooley, C.H. 1964Human nature and the social orderSchockenNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Dedrick, C.V.L., Raschke, D.B. 1990The special educator and job stress.National Education AssociationWashington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunkin, M.J., Biddle, B.J. 1974The study of teachingUniversity press of AmericaNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Farber, B.A. 1991Crisis in education. Stress and burnout in the American teacherJossey BassSan FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  19. Fimian, M.J. 1986Social support and occupational stress in special educationExceptional Children52436442Google Scholar
  20. Freeman, A. 1987Pastoral care and teacher stressPastoral Care in Education52228Google Scholar
  21. Friedman, I.A. 2000Burnout in teachers: shattered dreams of impeccable professional performanceJournal of Clinical Psychology56595606Google Scholar
  22. Friedman, I.A., Farber, B.A. 1992Professional self-concept as a predictor of teacher burnoutJournal of Educational Research862835Google Scholar
  23. Friedman, I.A., Gavish, B. 2001The novice teacher: the difficulties, the support, and the adjustmentThe Henrietta Szold Institute (Hebrew)JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  24. Gavish, B. (2002). Congruence and gaps among role expectations and actual role perceptions as predictors of burnout in novice teachers. PhD Thesis. (Hebrew with an English abstract) Jerusalem: The Hebrew University.Google Scholar
  25. Greenglass, E.R, Fiksenbaum, L., Burke, R.J. 1996Components of social support, buffering effects and burnout: Implications for psychological functioningAnxiety, Stress, and Coping9185197Google Scholar
  26. Greer, J.G., Wethered, C.E. 1984Learned helplessness: A piece of the burnout puzzleExceptional Children5524530Google Scholar
  27. Gross, N., Mason, W.S., McEachen, A.W. 1958Explorations in role analysisWiley & SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Guttman, L., Levy, S. 1991Two structural laws for intelligence testsIntelligence1579103Google Scholar
  29. Guttman, L. 1954A new approach to factor analysis: The RadexLazarsfeld, P.F. eds. Mathematical thinking in the social sciencesFree PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Guttman, L. 1959Introduction to facet design and analysis. Proceedings of the fifteenth international congress of psychologyAmsterdamNorth Holland130132Google Scholar
  31. Guttman, L. 1968A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of pointsPsychometrika33469506Google Scholar
  32. Handy, C., Aitken, R. 1990Understanding schools as organizationsPenguin BooksHarmondsworth, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  33. Handy, C. 1989The age of unreasonHarvard Business School PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Handy, C. 1994The future of work: A guide to a changing societyBasil BlackwellOxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B.B. 1959The Motivation to workHarper & BrothersNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson, S.M. (1990). Teachers at work. Harper-Collins.Google Scholar
  37. Kelchtermans, G. 1999Teaching career: Between burnout and fading away? Reflections from a narrative and biographical perspectiveVandenberghe, R.Huberman, A.M. eds. Understanding and preventing teacher burnoutCambridge University PressCambridge, UK176191Google Scholar
  38. Kohut, H. 1971The analysis of the selfInternational Universities PressNewYorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Leithwood, K.A., Menzies, T., Jantzi, D., Leithwood, J. 1999Teacher burnout: a critical challenge for leaders of restructuring schoolsVandenberghe, R.Huberman, A.M. eds. Understanding and preventing teacher burnoutCambridge University PressCambridge, UK176191Google Scholar
  40. Levy, S. 1985Lawful roles of facets in social theoriesCanter, D. eds. Facet theory: approaches to social researchSpringer-VerlagNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Levy, S. eds. 1994Louis Guttman on theory and methodology: Selected writingsAldershotDartmouthGoogle Scholar
  42. Littrell, P.C., Billingsley, B.S., Cross, L.H. 1994The effects of principals support on special and general educators’ stress, job satisfaction, school commitment, health, and intent to stay in teachingRemedial and Special Educationl5297310Google Scholar
  43. Lortie, D.C. 1975Schoolteacher: a sociological studyUniversity of Chicago PressChicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  44. Maslow, A.H. 1954Motivation and PersonalityHarper & RowNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. McClelland, D.C. 1961The achieving societyVan NostrandNJGoogle Scholar
  46. McLaughlin, M.W., Mei-Ling, Yee S. 1988Schools as a place to have a careerLieberman, A. eds. Building a professional culture in schoolsTeachers College PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. Meredith, B., Underwood, J. 1995Irreconcilable differencesDefining the rising conflict between regular and special education. Journal of Law and Education4195226Google Scholar
  48. Merton, R.T. 1957The Role-Set: Problems in sociological theoryBritish Journal of Sociology8106120Google Scholar
  49. Nias, J. 1999Teachers’ moral purpose: Stress, vulnerability, and strengthVandenberghe, R.Huberman, A.M. eds. Understanding and preventing teacher burnoutCambridge University PressCambridge, UK223237Google Scholar
  50. Rollinson, D. 2002Organizational behavior and analysisPearson Education LimitedHarlow, UK2nd ednGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosenholtz, S.J. 1986The organizational context of teaching.The National institute of EducationWashington, DCGoogle Scholar
  52. Rozenholtz, S.J. 1989Workplace conditions that affect teacher quality and commitment: Implications to teacher induction programsElementary School Journal89421439Google Scholar
  53. Schlesinger, I., Guttman, L. 1969Smallest space analysis of intelligence and achievement testsPsychological Bulletin7195100Google Scholar
  54. Shye, S., Elizur, D. 1994Introduction to Facet TheorySage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  55. Shye, S. 1991Faceted SSAA computer program for the PC. Jerusalem: Louis Gutman Israel Institute of Applied Behavior Science7401426Google Scholar
  56. Tziner, A.E. 1987The Facet analytic approach to research and data processingPeter LangNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Wisniewski, L., Gargiulo, R.M. 1997Occupational stress and burnout among special educators: A review of the literatureThe Journal of Special Education31325346Google Scholar
  58. Zabel, R.H., Boomer, L.W., King, T.R. 1984A model of stress and burnout among teachers of behaviorally disordered studentsBehavior Disorders9215221Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henrietta Szold InstituteNational Institute for Research in the Behavioral SciencesJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations