Advertisement

Studies in Philosophy and Education

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 319–333 | Cite as

Reframing emotion in education through lenses of parrhesia and care of the self

  • Michalinos ZembylasEmail author
  • Lynn Fendler
Article

Abstract

In this article, we critique two theoretical positions that analyze the place of emotions in education: the psychological strand and the cultural feminist strand. First of all, it is shown how a social control of emotions in education is reflected in the combination of psychological and cultural feminist discourses that function to govern one’s self effectively and efficiently. These discourses perpetuate an assumed divide between the rational and the emotional, and reinforce the existing power hierarchies and the status quo of stereotypes about the role of emotion in education. Then we use the Foucauldian notions of parrhesia and care of the self to suggest alternative ways of thinking about emotions in education. Instead of campaigning for one side or the other of the rational/emotional divide, we suggest that it may be more interesting and fruitful to examine the particular ways discourses of emotion in education construct their own brand of parrhesia.

Keywords

Parrhesia Care of the self Foucault Emotion Education 

References

  1. Abowitz, K. K. (2000). Making meaning of community in an American high school: A feminist-pragmatist critique of the liberalcommunitarian debates. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adorno, T. (1978). Minima moralia: Reflections from damaged life (trans. E. F. N. Jephcott). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, voice and mind. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  4. Blackmore, J. (1996). Doing ‘emotional labour’ in the education market place: Stories from the field of women in management. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 17, 337–349.Google Scholar
  5. Blackmore, J. (2004). Leading as emotional management work in high risk times: The counterintuitive impulses of performativity and passion. School Leadership & Management, 24, 439–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodine, R. J., & Crawford, D. K. (1999). Developing emotional intelligence: A guide to behavior management and conflict resolution in schools. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  7. Boler, M. (1999). Feeling power: Emotions in education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Boler, M. (Ed.) (2004). Democratic dialogue in education: Troubling speech, disturbing silence. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  9. Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable weight: Feminism, Western culture and the body. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cherniss , C., & Goleman, D. (Eds.) (2001). The emotionally intelligent workplace: How to select for, measure, and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups, and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, R., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Putnum.Google Scholar
  12. Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. New York: G. P. Putnam.Google Scholar
  13. Despland, M. (1985). The education of desire: Plato and the philosophy of religion. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dirkx, J. M. (2001). The power of feelings: Emotion, imagination, and the construction of meaning in adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 89, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fendler, L. (1998). What is it impossible to think? A genealogy of the educated subject. In T. S. Popkewitz & M. Brennan (Eds.), Foucault’s challenge: Discourse, knowledge and power in education (pp. 39–63). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fendler, L. (1999). Making trouble: Prediction, agency and critical intellectuals. In T. S. Popkewitz & L. Fendler (Eds.), Critical theories in education: Changing terrains of knowledge and politics (pp. 169–188). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Fendler, L. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. Educational Researcher, 32(3), 16–25.Google Scholar
  18. Fineman, S. (Ed.) (2000). Emotion in organizations (2nd edn.). New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Foucault, M. (1984). The Foucault reader. In P. Rainbow (Ed.), New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  20. Foucault, M. (1988). Michel Foucault: Politics, philosophy, culture: Interviews and other writings 1977–1984 (ed. D. Kritzman). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. Foucault, M. (1988b). Technologies of the Self. In L. H. Martin, H. Gutman & P. H. Hutton (Eds.), Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault (pp. 16–49). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  22. Foucault, M. (1990a). The history of sexuality, Vol. 1: An introduction. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  23. Foucault, M. (1990b). The history of sexuality, Vol. 2: The use of pleasure. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  24. Foucault, M. (1990c). The history of sexuality, Vol. 3: The care of the self. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  25. Foucault, M. (2001). Fearless speech (ed. J. Pearson). LA: Semiotext(e)).Google Scholar
  26. Held, V. (1987). Feminism and moral theory. In E. F. Kittay & D. T. Meyers (Eds.), Women and moral theory (pp. 111–128). Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  27. Goldstein, L. S. (1998). Teaching with love: A feminist approach to early childhood education. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  28. Goldstein, L. S. (2002). Reclaiming caring in teaching and teacher education. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  29. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  30. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  31. Grosz, E. A. (1994). Volatile bodies: Toward a corporeal feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hargreaves, A. (1998a). The emotional practice of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14, 835–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hargreaves, A. (1998b). The emotional politics of teaching and teacher development: With implications for educational leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1, 315–336.Google Scholar
  34. Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 811–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hartley, D. (2003). The instrumentalisation of the expressive in education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 51, 6–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Interstate New Teacher Assessment, Support Consortium (INTASC) (1991). Model standards for beginning teacher licensing and development: A resource for state dialogue. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.Google Scholar
  39. Jäger, W. (1939). Paideia: The ideals of Greek culture (trans. G. Highet). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  40. Jay, M. (1973). The dialectical imagination: A history of the Frankfurt school and the institute of social research, 1923–1950. London: Heinemann Educational Books.Google Scholar
  41. Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay.Google Scholar
  42. Lupton, D. (1998). The emotional self. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Lord, R. G., Klimoski, R. J., & Kanfer, R. (Eds.) (2002). Emotions in the workplace: Understanding the structure and role of emotions in organizational behavior. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  44. Lynn, A. B. (2002). The emotional intelligence activity book: 50 activities for developing EQ at work. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  45. Marrou, H. I. (1948/1956). A history of education in antiquity (trans. G. Lamb). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mayer, J. D. (2001). A field guide to emotional intelligence. In J. Ciarrochi, J. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (pp. 3–24). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  47. Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21, 986–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (2002). Professional standards for the accreditation of schools, colleges, and departments of education. Retrieved from http://www.cate.org/2000/unit_stnds_2002.pdf.
  49. Nias, J. (1999). Teaching as a culture of care. In J. Prosser (Ed.), School culture (pp. 66–81). London: Paul Chapman Pub.Google Scholar
  50. Nilson, H. (1998). Michel Foucault and the games of truth. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  51. Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminist approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  52. Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  53. Noddings, N. (1996). Stories and affect in teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 26, 435–447.Google Scholar
  54. Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What’s basic about basic emotions. Psychological Review, 97, 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pignatelli, F. (2002). Mapping the terrain of a Foucauldian ethics: A response to the surveillance of schooling. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 21, 157–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rauner, D. M. (2000). They still pick me up when I fall: The role of caring in youth development and community life. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Rose, N. (1990). Governing the soul: The shaping of the private self. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Rose, N. (1998). Inventing our selves: Psychology, power and personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Rose, N. (1999). Powers of freedom: Reframing political thought. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Rose, N. (2000). Community, citizenship, and the third way. The American Behavioral Scientist, 43, 1395–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schaps, E., Battistich, V., & Solomon, D. (1997). School as caring community: A key to character education. In A. Molnar (Ed.), The construction of children’s character (pp. 127–139). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  62. Sernak, K. (1998). School leadership—Balancing power with caring. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  63. Shogan, D. (1995). The philosophy of the limit and emotions in the classroom. Philosophy of Education Yearbook. Retrieved from http://ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-yearbook/95_docs/shogan.html.Google Scholar
  64. Solomon, R. (1976). The passions. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.Google Scholar
  65. Sternburg, R. J. (2001). Measuring the intelligence of an idea: How intelligence is the idea of emotional intelligence. In J. Ciarrochi, J. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (pp. 187–194). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  66. Terada, R. (2001). Feeling in theory Emotion after the “death of the subject”. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Tracy, S. J. (2000). Becoming a character for commerce: Emotion labor, self-subordination, and discursive construction of identity in a total institution. Management Communication Quarterly, 14, 90–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zembylas, M. (2005). Teaching with emotion: A postmodern enactment. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  69. Zingale, A., & Arndt, M. (2001). New economy emotion: Engaging customer passion with E-CRM. Chichester, New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Open University of CyprusNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.School of Education, IntercollegeNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations