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Photogeologic Map of the Perseverance Rover Field Site in Jezero Crater Constructed by the Mars 2020 Science Team

Abstract

The Mars 2020 Perseverance rover landing site is located within Jezero crater, a \(\sim50~\mbox{km}\) diameter impact crater interpreted to be a Noachian-aged lake basin inside the western edge of the Isidis impact structure. Jezero hosts remnants of a fluvial delta, inlet and outlet valleys, and infill deposits containing diverse carbonate, mafic, and hydrated minerals. Prior to the launch of the Mars 2020 mission, members of the Science Team collaborated to produce a photogeologic map of the Perseverance landing site in Jezero crater. Mapping was performed at a 1:5000 digital map scale using a 25 cm/pixel High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) orthoimage mosaic base map and a 1 m/pixel HiRISE stereo digital terrain model. Mapped bedrock and surficial units were distinguished by differences in relative brightness, tone, topography, surface texture, and apparent roughness. Mapped bedrock units are generally consistent with those identified in previously published mapping efforts, but this study’s map includes the distribution of surficial deposits and sub-units of the Jezero delta at a higher level of detail than previous studies. This study considers four possible unit correlations to explain the relative age relationships of major units within the map area. Unit correlations include previously published interpretations as well as those that consider more complex interfingering relationships and alternative relative age relationships. The photogeologic map presented here is the foundation for scientific hypothesis development and strategic planning for Perseverance’s exploration of Jezero crater.

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Data availability

The HiRISE image pairs (listed in Online Resource 1, ESM_1.txt) that comprise the HiRISE visible base map used in this study are available online at the Astropedia lunar and planetary catographic catalog: https://planetarymaps.usgs.gov/mosaic/mars2020_trn/HiRISE/. The HiRISE visible base map is available at: https://astrogeology.usgs.gov/search/map/Mars/Mars2020/JEZ_hirise_soc_006_orthoMosaic_25cm_Eqc_latTs0_lon0_first. The HiRISE digital terrain model that was used to produce the slope map, stereo anaglyph, artificial hillshade, colorized shaded relief, and topographic contours at 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 meter intervals used in this study can be accessed at: https://astrogeology.usgs.gov/search/map/Mars/Mars2020/JEZ_hirise_soc_006_DTM_MOLAtopography_DeltaGeoid_1m_Eqc_latTs0_lon0_blend40. Mapping shapefiles are included as Online Resource 3 (ESM_3.zip). The CRISM MTRDR false color basemap can be accessed here: https://data.nasa.gov/docs/datasets/public/CRISM-Mosaic/jezero_crater_mosaic_SET_OPT_TAN_rect_flightCTX.tfw.

Code availability

Source files for the CAMP tool, “Web-based Spatial Data Infrastructure for Planetary Science Operations” are available on GitHub at https://github.com/NASA-AMMOS/MMGIS.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the members of the Mars 2020 Council of Terrains, the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center, the scientists and engineers of the MRO HiRISE mission, and Frank Seelos for providing the base maps used in this study. We acknowledge Jeff Schroeder’s assistance in the preparation of supplementary materials. Thanks to Shannon Cofield and Axel Noblet who worked with the lead author on preliminary mapping efforts in Jezero crater that preceded and informed the results of the Mars 2020 Science Team effort. Ken Edgett and Gilles Dromart provided helpful comments that improved this work. The authors would like to thank and acknowledge Tim Goudge and Brad Thomson for providing thoughtful, thorough, and helpful reviews of this manuscript.

Funding

This effort was carried out in part by named co-authors under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. N. Schmitz acknowledges support from Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt German Aerospace Center. J. Lasue, N. Mangold, and C. Quantin-Nataf acknowledge support from Centre National d’Etudes Spatial (CNES). A. Molina acknowledges support from the “MarsFirstWater,” European Research Council, Consolidator Grant no. 818602 and the Agencia Estatal de Investigacíon (AEI) project no. MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu.” T. Berger, H. Dypvik, S. Eide, and S.-E. Hamran acknowledge support from the University of Oslo and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment.

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Contributions

Conceptualization: K.M. Stack, K.H. Williford, K.A. Farley.

Methodology: K.M. Stack, K.H. Williford, N.R. Williams, F. Calef III, V.Z. Sun.

Basemap and data product production: N.R. Williams and F. Calef III.

CAMP tool development and preparation: F. Calef III.

Mapping and unit descriptions: K.M. Stack, V.Z. Sun, K.H. Williford, S. Eide, D. Flannery, C. Hughes, S.R. Jacob, L.C. Kah, F. Meyen, A. Molina-Jurado, C.Q. Nataf, M. Rice, P. Russell, E. Scheller, C.H. Seeger, W.J. Abbey, J.B. Adler, H. Amundsen, R.B. Anderson, S.M. Angel, G. Arana, J. Atkins, B.L. Carrier, P. Conrad, M. Barrington, T. Berger, R. Borden, B. Boring, H. Dypvik, S.A. Fagents, Z.E. Gallegos, B. Garczynski, K. Golder, F. Gomez, Y. Goreva, S. Gupta, S.-E. Hamran, T. Hicks, E.D. Hinterman, B.N. Horgan, J. Hurowitz, J.R. Johnson, J. Lasue, Y. Liu, J.M. Madariaga, N. Mangold, J. McClean, N. Miklusicak, D. Nunes, C. Rojas, K. Runyon, N. Schmitz, N. Scudder, E. Shaver, J. SooHoo, R. Spaulding, E. Stanish, L.K. Tamppari, M.M. Tice, N. Turenne, P.A. Willis, A. Yingst.

Map reconciliation: K.M. Stack, N.R. Williams, F. Calef III.

Writing – original draft preparation: K.M. Stack, N.R. Williams, F. Calef III, V.Z. Sun.

Writing – review and editing: K.M. Stack, N.R. Williams, R.E. Kronyak, A. Brown, P. Conrad, N. Mangold, C.H. Seeger, A. Yingst, P.A. Willis.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kathryn M. Stack.

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The Mars 2020 Mission

Edited by Kenneth A. Farley, Kenneth H. Williford and Kathryn M. Stack

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below are the links to the electronic supplementary material.

11214_2020_739_MOESM1_ESM.pdf

High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) image pairs used to construct the HiRISE base map and HiRISE digital terrain model used in this study and links to repositories hosting these basemaps. (PDF 171 kB)

11214_2020_739_MOESM2_ESM.tif

Mapping quadrangles with informal quad names and the Perseverance landing ellipse displayed on the HiRISE basemap. (TIF 18.6 MB)

11214_2020_739_MOESM3_ESM.zip

GIS-ready shapefile, associated auxiliary files, and README file containing the Mars 2020 Science Team’s photogeologic map of the Perseverance rover landing site in Jezero crater. (ZIP 3.3 MB)

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Stack, K.M., Williams, N.R., Calef, F. et al. Photogeologic Map of the Perseverance Rover Field Site in Jezero Crater Constructed by the Mars 2020 Science Team. Space Sci Rev 216, 127 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00739-x

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Keywords

  • Mars
  • Perseverance
  • Rover
  • Jezero
  • Geologic mapping