Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, 215:19 | Cite as

Comet 67P/CG Nucleus Composition and Comparison to Other Comets

  • Gianrico FilacchioneEmail author
  • Olivier Groussin
  • Clémence Herny
  • David Kappel
  • Stefano Mottola
  • Nilda Oklay
  • Antoine Pommerol
  • Ian Wright
  • Zurine Yoldi
  • Mauro Ciarniello
  • Lyuba Moroz
  • Andrea Raponi
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Comets: Post 67P / Churyumov–Gerasimenko Perspectives

Abstract

We review our current knowledge of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko nucleus composition as inferred from measurements made by remote sensing and in-situ instruments aboard Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander. Spectrophotometric properties (albedos, color indexes and Hapke parameters) of 67P/CG derived by Rosetta are discussed in the context of other comets previously explored by space missions. Composed of an assemblage made of ices, organic materials and minerals, cometary nuclei exhibit very dark and red surfaces which can be described by means of spectrophotometric quantities and reproduced with laboratory measurements. The presence of surface water and carbon dioxide ices was found by Rosetta to occur at localized sites where the activity driven by solar input, gaseous condensation or exposure of pristine inner layers can maintain these species on the surface. Apart from these specific areas, 67P/CG’s surface appears remarkably uniform in composition with a predominance of organic materials and minerals. The organic compounds contain abundant hydroxyl group and a refractory macromolecular material bearing aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The mineral components are compatible with a mixture of silicates and fine-grained opaques, including Fe-sulfides, like troilite and pyrrhotite, and ammoniated salts. In the vicinity of the perihelion several active phenomena, including the erosion of surface layers, the localized activity in cliffs, fractures and pits, the collapse of overhangs and walls, the transfer and redeposition of dust, cause the evolution of the different regions of the nucleus by inducing color, composition and texture changes.

Keywords

Comets Composition Ices Organic matter Minerals 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 686709. This work was supported by the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) under contract number 16.0008-2. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official view of the Swiss Government. We gratefully thank the MIARD project team at ISSI, Bern, Switzerland led by Professor Nicolas Thomas from the University of Bern’s Space Research and Planetology division. G.F., M.C. and A.R. acknowledge financial support from ASI, Italian Space Agency. L.M. acknowledges the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) grant MO 3007/1-1. D.K. acknowledges DFG-grant KA 3757/2-1.

References

  1. M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, A. Delamere, W.H. Blume, Deep impact: a large-scale active experiment on a cometary nucleus. Space Sci. Rev. 117, 1–21 (2005a).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-005-3387-3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, W.A. Delamere, J. Kissel, K.P. Klaasen, L.A. McFadden, K.J. Meech, H.J. Melosh, P.H. Schultz, J.M. Sunshine, P.C. Thomas, J. Veverka, D.K. Yeomans, M.W. Baca, I. Busko, C.J. Crockett, S.M. Collins, M. Desnoyer, C.A. Eberhardy, C.M. Ernst, T.L. Farnham, L. Feaga, O. Groussin, D. Hampton, S.I. Ipatov, J.-Y. Li, D. Lindler, C.M. Lisse, N. Mastrodemos, W.M. Owen, J.E. Richardson, D.D. Wellnitz, R.L. White, Deep impact: excavating comet Tempel 1. Science 310, 258–264 (2005b).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1118923 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, W.A. Delamere, L.M. Feaga, D. Hampton, J. Kissel, K.P. Klaasen, L.A. McFadden, K.J. Meech, H.J. Melosh, P.H. Schultz, J.M. Sunshine, P.C. Thomas, J. Veverka, D.D. Wellnitz, D.K. Yeomans, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, T.J. Bowling, B.T. Carcich, S.M. Collins, T.L. Farnham, O. Groussin, B. Hermalyn, M.S. Kelley, M.S. Kelley, J.-Y. Li, D.J. Lindler, C.M. Lisse, S.A. McLaughlin, F. Merlin, S. Protopapa, J.E. Richardson, J.L. Williams, EPOXI at comet Hartley 2. Science 332, 1396 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1204054 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, J.J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, U. Calmonte, S.A. Fuselier, F. Goesmann, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, L. Le Roy, J. de Keyser, A. Morse, M. Rubin, M. Schuhmann, M.G.G.T. Taylor, C.-Y. Tzou, I. Wright, Organics in comet 67P—a first comparative analysis of mass spectra from ROSINA-DFMS, COSAC and Ptolemy. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 130–141 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1415 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. A.-T. Auger, O. Groussin, L. Jorda, S. Bouley, R. Gaskell, P.L. Lamy, C. Capanna, N. Thomas, A. Pommerol, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, S. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, J. Knollenberg, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, H. Michalik, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, L. Sabau, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, K.-P. Wenzel, Geomorphology of the Imhotep region on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 35 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525947 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. H. Balsiger, K. Altwegg, P. Bochsler, P. Eberhardt, J. Fischer, S. Graf, A. Jäckel, E. Kopp, U. Langer, M. Mildner, J. Müller, T. Riesen, M. Rubin, S. Scherer, P. Wurz, S. Wüthrich, E. Arijs, S. Delanoye, J. de Keyser, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, H. Rème, C. Aoustin, C. Mazelle, J.-L. Médale, J.A. Sauvaud, J.-J. Berthelier, J.-L. Bertaux, L. Duvet, J.-M. Illiano, S.A. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, T. Magoncelli, E.G. Shelley, A. Korth, K. Heerlein, H. Lauche, S. Livi, A. Loose, U. Mall, B. Wilken, F. Gliem, B. Fiethe, T.I. Gombosi, B. Block, G.R. Carignan, L.A. Fisk, J.H. Waite, D.T. Young, H. Wollnik, Rosina Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 745–801 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-8335-3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. A. Bardyn, D. Baklouti, H. Cottin, N. Fray, C. Briois, J. Paquette, O. Stenzel, C. Engrand, H. Fischer, K. Hornung, R. Isnard, Y. Langevin, H. Lehto, L. Le Roy, N. Ligier, S. Merouane, P. Modica, F.-R. Orthous-Daunay, J. Rynö, R. Schulz, J. Silén, L. Thirkell, K. Varmuza, B. Zaprudin, J. Kissel, M. Hilchenbach, Carbon-rich dust in comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko measured by COSIMA/Rosetta. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 712–722 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. M.A. Barucci, G. Filacchione, S. Fornasier, A. Raponi, J.D.P. Deshapriya, F. Tosi, C. Feller, M. Ciarniello, H. Sierks, F. Capaccioni, A. Pommerol, M. Massironi, N. Oklay, F. Merlin, J.-B. Vincent, M. Fulchignoni, A. Guilbert-Lepoutre, D. Perna, M.T. Capria, P.H. Hasselmann, B. Rousseau, C. Barbieri, D. Bockelée-Morvan, P.L. Lamy, C. De Sanctis, R. Rodrigo, S. Erard, D. Koschny, C. Leyrat, H. Rickman, P. Drossart, H.U. Keller, M.F. A’Hearn, G. Arnold, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, P. Cerroni, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B.J.R. Davidsson, M.R. El-Maarry, S. Fonti, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, S.F. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, D. Kappel, J. Knollenberg, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Mancarella, F. Marzari, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, M. Pajola, E. Palomba, E. Quirico, B. Schmitt, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, Detection of exposed H2O ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. as observed by Rosetta OSIRIS and VIRTIS instruments. Astron. Astrophys. 595, 102 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201628764 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. J. Benkhoff, Numerical simulations of the gas flux at the surface of a 2060 Chiron, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol. 27 (1995), p. 1338 Google Scholar
  10. M.S. Bentley, R. Schmied, T. Mannel, K. Torkar, H. Jeszenszky, J. Romstedt, A.-C. Levasseur-Regourd, I. Weber, E.K. Jessberger, P. Ehrenfreund, C. Koeberl, O. Havnes, Aggregate dust particles at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Nature 537, 73–75 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19091 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. J.-P. Bibring, H. Rosenbauer, H. Boehnhardt, S. Ulamec, J. Biele, S. Espinasse, B. Feuerbacher, P. Gaudon, P. Hemmerich, P. Kletzkine, D. Moura, R. Mugnuolo, G. Nietner, B. Pätz, R. Roll, H. Scheuerle, K. Szegö, K. Wittmann, The Rosetta Lander (Philae) investigations. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 205–220 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9138-2 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. J.-P. Bibring, Y. Langevin, J. Carter, P. Eng, B. Gondet, L. Jorda, S. Le Mouélic, S. Mottola, C. Pilorget, F. Poulet, M. Vincendon, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko surface properties as derived from CIVA panoramic images. Science 349(2) (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab0671
  13. J. Biele, S. Ulamec, M. Maibaum, R. Roll, L. Witte, E. Jurado, P. Muñoz, W. Arnold, H.-U. Auster, C. Casas, C. Faber, C. Fantinati, F. Finke, H.-H. Fischer, K. Geurts, C. Güttler, P. Heinisch, A. Herique, S. Hviid, G. Kargl, M. Knapmeyer, J. Knollenberg, W. Kofman, N. Kömle, E. Kührt, V. Lommatsch, S. Mottola, R. Pardo de Santayana, E. Remetean, F. Scholten, K.J. Seidensticker, H. Sierks, T. Spohn, The landing(s) of Philae and inferences about comet surface mechanical properties. Science 349(1) (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa9816
  14. A. Bieler, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, J.-J. Berthelier, U. Calmonte, M. Combi, J. De Keyser, B. Fiethe, N. Fougere, S. Fuselier, S. Gasc, T. Gombosi, K. Hansen, M. Hässig, Z. Huang, A. Jäckel, X. Jia, L. Le Roy, U.A. Mall, H. Rème, M. Rubin, V. Tenishev, G. Tóth, C.-Y. Tzou, P. Wurz, Comparison of 3D kinetic and hydrodynamic models to ROSINA-COPS measurements of the neutral coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 7 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. N. Biver, M. Hofstadter, S. Gulkis, D. Bockelée-Morvan, M. Choukroun, E. Lellouch, F.P. Schloerb, L. Rezac, W.H. Ip, C. Jarchow, P. Hartogh, S. Lee, P. von Allmen, J. Crovisier, C. Leyrat, P. Encrenaz, Distribution of water around the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko at 3.4 AU from the Sun as seen by the MIRO instrument on Rosetta. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 3 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526094 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, The composition of cometary ices. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 375, 20160252 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2016.0252 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D. Bockelée-Morvan, T.Y. Brooke, J. Crovisier, On the origin of the 3.2 to 3.6-micron emission features in comets. Icarus 116, 18–39 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.1995.1111 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. D. Bockelée-Morvan, V. Debout, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, N. Fougere, P. Drossart, G. Arnold, M. Combi, B. Schmitt, J. Crovisier, M.-C. de Sanctis, T. Encrenaz, E. Kührt, E. Palomba, F.W. Taylor, F. Tosi, G. Piccioni, U. Fink, G. Tozzi, A. Barucci, N. Biver, M.-T. Capria, M. Combes, W. Ip, M. Blecka, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, J.-M. Reess, A. Semery, D. Tiphene, First observations of H2O and CO2 vapor in comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko made by VIRTIS onboard Rosetta. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 6 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, S. Erard, F. Capaccioni, C. Leyrat, G. Filacchione, P. Drossart, T. Encrenaz, N. Biver, M.-C. de Sanctis, B. Schmitt, E. Kührt, M.-T. Capria, M. Combes, M. Combi, N. Fougere, G. Arnold, U. Fink, W. Ip, A. Migliorini, G. Piccioni, G. Tozzi, Evolution of CO2, CH4, and OCS abundances relative to H2O in the coma of comet 67P around perihelion from Rosetta/VIRTIS-H observations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 170–183 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2428 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. H. Boehnhardt, J.-P. Bibring, I. Apathy, H.U. Auster, A. Ercoli Finzi, F. Goesmann, G. Klingelhöfer, M. Knapmeyer, W. Kofman, H. Krüger, S. Mottola, W. Schmidt, K. Seidensticker, T. Spohn, I. Wright, The Philae lander mission and science overview. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 375, 20160248 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2016.0248 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. J.-Y. Bonnet, E. Quirico, A. Buch, R. Thissen, C. Szopa, N. Carrasco, G. Cernogora, N. Fray, H. Cottin, L. Le Roy, G. Montagnac, E. Dartois, R. Brunetto, C. Engrand, J. Duprat, Formation of analogs of cometary nitrogen-rich refractory organics from thermal degradation of tholin and HCN polymer. Icarus 250, 53–63 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.11.006 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D.E. Brownlee, P. Tsou, J.D. Anderson, M.S. Hanner, R.L. Newburn, Z. Sekanina, B.C. Clark, F. Hörz, M.E. Zolensky, J. Kissel, J.A.M. McDonnell, S.A. Sandford, A.J. Tuzzolino, Stardust: comet and interstellar dust sample return mission. J. Geophys. Res., Planets 108, 8111 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JE002087 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. B.J. Buratti, M.D. Hicks, L.A. Soderblom, D. Britt, J. Oberst, J.K. Hillier, Deep Space 1 photometry of the nucleus of Comet 19P/Borrelly. Icarus 167, 16–29 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2003.05.002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. F. Capaccioni, A. Coradini, G. Filacchione, S. Erard, G. Arnold, P. Drossart, M.C. De Sanctis, D. Bockelee-Morvan, M.T. Capria, F. Tosi, C. Leyrat, B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, P. Cerroni, V. Mennella, A. Raponi, M. Ciarniello, T. McCord, L. Moroz, E. Palomba, E. Ammannito, M.A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, J.P. Bibring, A. Blanco, M. Blecka, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, T. Encrenaz, C. Federico, U. Fink, S. Fonti, W.H. Ip, P. Irwin, R. Jaumann, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, S. Mottola, V. Orofino, P. Palumbo, G. Piccioni, U. Schade, F. Taylor, D. Tiphene, G.P. Tozzi, P. Beck, N. Biver, L. Bonal, J.-P. Combe, D. Despan, E. Flamini, S. Fornasier, A. Frigeri, D. Grassi, M. Gudipati, A. Longobardo, K. Markus, F. Merlin, R. Orosei, G. Rinaldi, K. Stephan, M. Cartacci, A. Cicchetti, S. Giuppi, Y. Hello, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, R. Noschese, G. Peter, R. Politi, J.M. Reess, A. Semery, The organic-rich surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko as seen by VIRTIS/Rosetta. Science 347(1), 0628 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0628 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. M. Ciarniello, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, M.C. De Sanctis, M.T. Capria, S. Erard, D. Bockelee-Morvan, C. Leyrat, G. Arnold, A. Barucci, P. Beck, G. Bellucci, S. Fornasier, A. Longobardo, S. Mottola, E. Palomba, E. Quirico, B. Schmitt, Photometric properties of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from VIRTIS-M onboard Rosetta. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 31 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. M. Ciarniello, A. Raponi, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, F. Tosi, M.C. De Sanctis, D. Kappel, B. Rousseau, G. Arnold, M.T. Capria, M.A. Barucci, E. Quirico, A. Longobardo, E. Kuehrt, S. Mottola, S. Erard, D. Bockelée-Morvan, C. Leyrat, A. Migliorini, A. Zinzi, E. Palomba, B. Schmitt, G. Piccioni, P. Cerroni, W.-H. Ip, G. Rinaldi, M. Salatti, The global surface composition of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko nucleus by Rosetta/VIRTIS. II) Diurnal and seasonal variability. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 443–458 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw3177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. B.C. Clark, L.W. Mason, J. Kissel, Systematics of the CHON and other light element particle populations in Comet p/ Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 779 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. L. Colangeli, J.J. Lopez-Moreno, P. Palumbo, J. Rodriguez, M. Cosi, V. Della Corte, F. Esposito, M. Fulle, M. Herranz, J.M. Jeronimo, A. Lopez-Jimenez, E.M. Epifani, R. Morales, F. Moreno, E. Palomba, A. Rotundi, The Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator (GIADA) experiment for the Rosetta mission: design, performances and first results. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 803–821 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9038-5 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. A. Coradini, F. Capaccioni, P. Drossart, G. Arnold, E. Ammannito, F. Angrilli, A. Barucci, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, G. Bianchini, J.P. Bibring, M. Blecka, D. Bockelee-Morvan, M.T. Capria, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, P. Cerroni, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, M.C. De Sanctis, E.T. Encrenaz, S. Erard, C. Federico, G. Filacchione, U. Fink, S. Fonti, V. Formisano, W.H. Ip, R. Jaumann, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, T. McCord, V. Mennella, S. Mottola, G. Neukum, P. Palumbo, G. Piccioni, H. Rauer, B. Saggin, B. Schmitt, D. Tiphene, G. Tozzi, Virtis: an imaging spectrometer for the Rosetta mission. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 529–559 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9127-5 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. D.P. Cruikshank, C.M. Dalle Ore, R.N. Clark, Y.J. Pendleton, Aromatic and aliphatic organic materials on Iapetus: analysis of Cassini VIMS data. Icarus 233, 306–315 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.02.011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. A.A. de Almeida, W.F. Huebner, J. Benkhoff, D.C. Boice, P.D. Singh, The three sources of gas in the comae of comets, in Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica Conference Series, ed. by E. Falco, J.A. Fernandez, R.F. Ferrero, vol. 4 (1996), p. 110 Google Scholar
  32. C. de Bergh, B. Schmitt, L.V. Moroz, E. Quirico, D.P. Cruikshank, in Laboratory Data on Ices, Refractory Carbonaceous Materials, and Minerals Relevant to Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs, ed. by M.A. Barucci, H. Boehnhardt, D.P. Cruikshank, A. Morbidelli, R. Dotson (2008), pp. 483–506 Google Scholar
  33. D. de Niem, E. Kührt, S. Hviid, B. Davidsson, Low velocity collisions of porous planetesimals in the early solar system. Icarus 301, 196–218 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.024 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. M.C. de Sanctis, M.T. Capria, A. Coradini, Thermal evolution model of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, the new Rosetta target. Astron. Astrophys. 444, 605–614 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20053036 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. M.C. de Sanctis, F. Capaccioni, M. Ciarniello, G. Filacchione, M. Formisano, S. Mottola, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, D. Bockelée-Morvan, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, B. Schmitt, E. Ammannito, G. Arnold, M.A. Barucci, M. Combi, M.T. Capria, P. Cerroni, W.-H. Ip, E. Kuehrt, T.B. McCord, E. Palomba, P. Beck, E. Quirico, VIRTIS Team, G. Piccioni, G. Bellucci, M. Fulchignoni, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, A. Longobardo, V. Mennella, A. Migliorini, J. Benkhoff, J.P. Bibring, A. Blanco, M. Blecka, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, J. Crovisier, P. Drossart, T. Encrenaz, C. Federico, U. Fink, S. Fonti, P. Irwin, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, L. Moroz, V. Orofino, U. Schade, F. Taylor, D. Tiphene, G.P. Tozzi, N. Biver, L. Bonal, J.-P. Combe, D. Despan, E. Flamini, S. Fornasier, A. Frigeri, D. Grassi, M.S. Gudipati, F. Mancarella, K. Markus, F. Merlin, R. Orosei, G. Rinaldi, M. Cartacci, A. Cicchetti, S. Giuppi, Y. Hello, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, J.M. Rees, R. Noschese, R. Politi, G. Peter, The diurnal cycle of water ice on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Nature 525, 500–503 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14869 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. M.C. De Sanctis, E. Ammannito, H.Y. McSween, A. Raponi, S. Marchi, F. Capaccioni, M.T. Capria, F.G. Carrozzo, M. Ciarniello, S. Fonte, M. Formisano, A. Frigeri, M. Giardino, A. Longobardo, G. Magni, L.A. McFadden, E. Palomba, C.M. Pieters, F. Tosi, F. Zambon, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres. Science 355, 719–722 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj2305 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. V. Della Corte, A. Rotundi, M. Fulle, E. Gruen, P. Weissman, R. Sordini, M. Ferrari, S. Ivanovski, F. Lucarelli, M. Accolla, V. Zakharov, E. Mazzotta Epifani, J.J. Lopez-Moreno, J. Rodriguez, L. Colangeli, P. Palumbo, E. Bussoletti, J.F. Crifo, F. Esposito, S.F. Green, P.L. Lamy, J.A.M. McDonnell, V. Mennella, A. Molina, R. Morales, F. Moreno, J.L. Ortiz, E. Palomba, J.M. Perrin, F.J.M. Rietmeijer, R. Rodrigo, J.C. Zarnecki, M. Cosi, F. Giovane, B. Gustafson, M.L. Herranz, J.M. Jeronimo, M.R. Leese, A.C. Lopez-Jimenez, N. Altobelli, GIADA: shining a light on the monitoring of the comet dust production from the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 13 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. N. Dello Russo, R.J. Vervack, H.A. Weaver, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, C.M. Lisse, Compositional homogeneity in the fragmented comet 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3. Nature 448, 172–175 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05908 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. A.H. Delsemme, The cometary connection with prebiotic chemistry. Orig. Life 14, 51–60 (1984).  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00933639 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. J.D.P. Deshapriya, M.A. Barucci, S. Fornasier, C. Feller, P.H. Hasselmann, H. Sierks, M.R. El-Maarry, M. Pajola, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Boudreault, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B.J.R. Davidsson, S. Debei, J. Deller, M. De Cecco, M. Fulle, A. Gicquel, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, D. Perna, A. Pommerol, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Spectrophotometry of the Khonsu region on the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko using OSIRIS instrument images. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 274–286 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. E. Dobricǎ, A.J. Brearley, Crystalline silicates in Comet 81P/Wild 2 from the Stardust Track 81. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 74, 5413 (2011) Google Scholar
  42. E. Dobricǎ, C. Engrand, E. Quirico, G. Montagnac, J. Duprat, Raman characterization of carbonaceous matter in CONCORDIA Antarctic micrometeorites. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 46, 1363–1375 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1945-5100.2011.01235.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. E. Dobrică, C. Engrand, H. Leroux, J.-N. Rouzaud, J. Duprat, Transmission electron microscopy of CONCORDIA UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic MicroMeteorites (UCAMMs): mineralogical properties. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 76, 68–82 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2011.10.025 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. M.R. El-Maarry, N. Thomas, L. Giacomini, M. Massironi, M. Pajola, R. Marschall, A. Gracia-Berná, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, H. Rickman, D. Koschny, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, A.-T. Auger, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, M. De Cecco, S. Debei, C. Güttler, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, A. Pommerol, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Regional surface morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from Rosetta/OSIRIS images. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 26 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525723 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. C. Engrand, J. Duprat, E. Dartois, K. Benzerara, H. Leroux, D. Baklouti, A. Bardyn, C. Briois, H. Cottin, H. Fischer, N. Fray, M. Godard, M. Hilchenbach, Y. Langevin, J. Paquette, J. Rynö, R. Schulz, J. Silén, O. Stenzel, L. Thirkell, Cosima Team, Variations in cometary dust composition from Giotto to Rosetta, clues to their formation mechanisms. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 323–330 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2844 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. S. Espinasse, J. Klinger, C. Ritz, B. Schmitt, Modeling of the thermal behavior and of the chemical differentiation of cometary nuclei. Icarus 92, 350–365 (1991).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0019-1035(91)90058-2 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. L.M. Feaga, M.F. A’Hearn, J.M. Sunshine, O. Groussin, T.L. Farnham, Asymmetries in the distribution of H2O and CO2 in the inner coma of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 as observed by Deep Impact. Icarus 191, 134–145 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.04.038 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. G. Filacchione, M. Ciarniello, F. Capaccioni, R.N. Clark, P.D. Nicholson, M.M. Hedman, J.N. Cuzzi, D.P. Cruikshank, C.M. Dalle Ore, R.H. Brown, P. Cerroni, N. Altobelli, L.J. Spilker, Cassini-VIMS observations of Saturn’s main rings: I. Spectral properties and temperature radial profiles variability with phase angle and elevation. Icarus 241, 45–65 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.06.001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. G. Filacchione, M.C. de Sanctis, F. Capaccioni, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, M. Ciarniello, P. Cerroni, G. Piccioni, M.T. Capria, E. Palomba, G. Bellucci, S. Erard, D. Bockelee-Morvan, C. Leyrat, G. Arnold, M.A. Barucci, M. Fulchignoni, B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, A. Longobardo, V. Mennella, A. Migliorini, E. Ammannito, J. Benkhoff, J.P. Bibring, A. Blanco, M.I. Blecka, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, P. Drossart, T. Encrenaz, C. Federico, U. Fink, S. Fonti, W.H. Ip, P. Irwin, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, T. McCord, L. Moroz, S. Mottola, V. Orofino, U. Schade, F. Taylor, D. Tiphene, G.P. Tozzi, P. Beck, N. Biver, L. Bonal, J.-P. Combe, D. Despan, E. Flamini, M. Formisano, S. Fornasier, A. Frigeri, D. Grassi, M.S. Gudipati, D. Kappel, F. Mancarella, K. Markus, F. Merlin, R. Orosei, G. Rinaldi, M. Cartacci, A. Cicchetti, S. Giuppi, Y. Hello, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, J.M. Reess, R. Noschese, R. Politi, G. Peter, Exposed water ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Nature 529, 368–372 (2016a).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16190 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. G. Filacchione, A. Raponi, F. Capaccioni, M. Ciarniello, F. Tosi, M.T. Capria, M.C. De Sanctis, A. Migliorini, G. Piccioni, P. Cerroni, M.A. Barucci, S. Fornasier, B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, S. Erard, D. Bockelee-Morvan, C. Leyrat, G. Arnold, V. Mennella, E. Ammannito, G. Bellucci, J. Benkhoff, J.P. Bibring, A. Blanco, M.I. Blecka, R. Carlson, U. Carsenty, L. Colangeli, M. Combes, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, P. Drossart, T. Encrenaz, C. Federico, U. Fink, S. Fonti, M. Fulchignoni, W.-H. Ip, P. Irwin, R. Jaumann, E. Kuehrt, Y. Langevin, G. Magni, T. McCord, L. Moroz, S. Mottola, E. Palomba, U. Schade, K. Stephan, F. Taylor, D. Tiphene, G.P. Tozzi, P. Beck, N. Biver, L. Bonal, J.-P. Combe, D. Despan, E. Flamini, M. Formisano, A. Frigeri, D. Grassi, M.S. Gudipati, D. Kappel, A. Longobardo, F. Mancarella, K. Markus, F. Merlin, R. Orosei, G. Rinaldi, M. Cartacci, A. Cicchetti, Y. Hello, F. Henry, S. Jacquinod, J.M. Reess, R. Noschese, R. Politi, G. Peter, Seasonal exposure of carbon dioxide ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Science 354, 1563–1566 (2016b).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag3161 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. G. Filacchione, F. Capaccioni, M. Ciarniello, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, M.C. De Sanctis, S. Erard, D.B. Morvan, C. Leyrat, G. Arnold, B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, G. Piccioni, A. Migliorini, M.T. Capria, E. Palomba, P. Cerroni, A. Longobardo, A. Barucci, S. Fornasier, R.W. Carlson, R. Jaumann, K. Stephan, L.V. Moroz, D. Kappel, B. Rousseau, S. Fonti, F. Mancarella, D. Despan, M. Faure, The global surface composition of 67P/CG nucleus by Rosetta/VIRTIS. (I) Prelanding mission phase. Icarus 274, 334–349 (2016c).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.055 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. U. Fink, L. Doose, G. Rinaldi, A. Bieler, F. Capaccioni, D. Bockelée-Morvan, G. Filacchione, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, M. Blecka, M.T. Capria, M. Combi, J. Crovisier, M.C. De Sanctis, N. Fougere, F. Taylor, A. Migliorini, G. Piccioni, Investigation into the disparate origin of CO2 and H2O outgassing for Comet 67/P. Icarus 277, 78–97 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.04.040 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. S. Fornasier, P.H. Hasselmann, M.A. Barucci, C. Feller, S. Besse, C. Leyrat, L. Lara, P.J. Gutierrez, N. Oklay, C. Tubiana, F. Scholten, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, S.F. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, K.-D. Matz, H. Michalik, F. Moreno, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, M. Pajola, A. Pommerol, F. Preusker, X. Shi, C. Snodgrass, N. Thomas, J.-B. Vincent, Spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 30 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525901 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. S. Fornasier, S. Mottola, H.U. Keller, M.A. Barucci, B. Davidsson, C. Feller, J.D.P. Deshapriya, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M. A’Hearn, J. Agarwal, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, M.R. El-Maarry, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, M.L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J.L. Moreno, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, A. Pommerol, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, X. Shi, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Rosetta’s comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko sheds its dusty mantle to reveal its icy nature. Science 354, 1566–1570 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aag2671 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. N. Fougere, K. Altwegg, J.-J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, D. Bockelée-Morvan, U. Calmonte, F. Capaccioni, M.R. Combi, J. De Keyser, V. Debout, S. Erard, B. Fiethe, G. Filacchione, U. Fink, S.A. Fuselier, T.I. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, M. Hässig, Z. Huang, L. Le Roy, C. Leyrat, A. Migliorini, G. Piccioni, G. Rinaldi, M. Rubin, Y. Shou, V. Tenishev, G. Toth, C.-Y. Tzou, Direct simulation Monte Carlo modelling of the major species in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 156–169 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2388 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. N. Fray, B. Schmitt, Sublimation of ices of astrophysical interest: a bibliographic review. Planet. Space Sci. 57, 2053–2080 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. M. Fulle, F. Marzari, V. Della Corte, S. Fornasier, H. Sierks, A. Rotundi, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J.J. López-Moreno, M. Accolla, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, N. Altobelli, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, D. Bodewits, E. Bussoletti, L. Colangeli, M. Cosi, G. Cremonese, J.-F. Crifo, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, F. Esposito, M. Ferrari, F. Giovane, B. Gustafson, S.F. Green, O. Groussin, E. Grün, P. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, M.L. Herranz, S.F. Hviid, W. Ip, S.L. Ivanovski, J.M. Jerónimo, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, M.R. Leese, A.C. López-Jiménez, F. Lucarelli, E. Mazzotta Epifani, J.A.M. McDonnell, V. Mennella, A. Molina, R. Morales, F. Moreno, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, J.L. Ortiz, E. Palomba, P. Palumbo, J.-M. Perrin, F.J.M. Rietmeijer, J. Rodríguez, R. Sordini, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, P. Weissman, K.-P. Wenzel, V. Zakharov, J.C. Zarnecki, Evolution of the dust size distribution of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from 2.2 au to Perihelion. Astrophys. J. 821, 19 (2016a).  https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/821/1/19 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. M. Fulle, N. Altobelli, B. Buratti, M. Choukroun, M. Fulchignoni, E. Grün, M.G.G.T. Taylor, P. Weissman, Unexpected and significant findings in comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko: an interdisciplinary view. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 2–8 (2016b).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw1663 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. P.A. Gerakines, M.H. Moore, R.L. Hudson, Ultraviolet photolysis and proton irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs containing hydrogen cyanide. Icarus 170, 202–213 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.02.005 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. K.-H. Glassmeier, H. Boehnhardt, D. Koschny, E. Kührt, I. Richter, The Rosetta mission: flying towards the origin of the solar system. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 1–21 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9140-8 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. F. Goesmann, H. Rosenbauer, R. Roll, C. Szopa, F. Raulin, R. Sternberg, G. Israel, U. Meierhenrich, W. Thiemann, G. Munoz-Caro, COSAC, the cometary sampling and composition experiment on Philae. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 257–280 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9000-6 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. F. Goesmann, H. Rosenbauer, J.H. Bredehöft, M. Cabane, P. Ehrenfreund, T. Gautier, C. Giri, H. Krüger, L. Le Roy, A.J. MacDermott, S. McKenna-Lawlor, U.J. Meierhenrich, G.M.M. Caro, F. Raulin, R. Roll, A. Steele, H. Steininger, R. Sternberg, C. Szopa, W. Thiemann, S. Ulamec, Organic compounds on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko revealed by COSAC mass spectrometry. Science 349(2) (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab0689
  63. R. Gomes, H.F. Levison, K. Tsiganis, A. Morbidelli, Origin of the cataclysmic Late Heavy Bombardment period of the terrestrial planets. Nature 435, 466–469 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03676 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O. Groussin, L. Jorda, A.-T. Auger, E. Kührt, R. Gaskell, C. Capanna, F. Scholten, F. Preusker, P. Lamy, S. Hviid, J. Knollenberg, U. Keller, C. Huettig, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.F. A’Hearn, J. Agarwal, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Boudreault, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, W.-H. Ip, J.-R. Kramm, M. Küppers, M. Lazzarin, L.M. Lara, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, H. Michalik, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, A. Pommerol, M. Pajola, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Gravitational slopes, geomorphology, and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 32 (2015a).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526379 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. O. Groussin, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, M.F. A’Hearn, A.-T. Auger, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, S. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Lowry, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, A. Pommerol, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Temporal morphological changes in the Imhotep region of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 36 (2015b).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. O. Groussin, N. Attree, Y. Brouet, V. Ciarletti, B. Davidsson, G. Filacchione, H.-H. Fischer, B. Gundlach, M. Knapmeyer, J. Knollenberg, R. Kokotanekova, E. Kührt, C. Leyrat, D. Marshall, I. Pelivan, Y. Skorov, C. Snodgrass, T. Spohn, F. Tosi, The thermal, mechanical, structural, and dielectric properties of cometary nuclei after Rosetta. Space Sci. Rev. (2019, this issue) Google Scholar
  67. S. Gulkis, M. Frerking, J. Crovisier, G. Beaudin, P. Hartogh, P. Encrenaz, T. Koch, C. Kahn, Y. Salinas, R. Nowicki, R. Irigoyen, M. Janssen, P. Stek, M. Hofstadter, M. Allen, C. Backus, L. Kamp, C. Jarchow, E. Steinmetz, A. Deschamps, J. Krieg, M. Gheudin, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, T. Encrenaz, D. Despois, W. Ip, E. Lellouch, I. Mann, D. Muhleman, H. Rauer, P. Schloerb, T. Spilker, MIRO: microwave instrument for Rosetta orbiter. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 561–597 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9032-y ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. B. Hapke, Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. P.H. Hasselmann, M.A. Barucci, S. Fornasier, C. Feller, J.D.P. Deshapriya, M. Fulchignoni, B. Jost, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, M. Fulle, R.W. Gaskell, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, M.L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, A. Pommerol, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, The opposition effect of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko on post-perihelion Rosetta images. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 550–567 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1834 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. M. Hässig, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, A. Bar-Nun, J.J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, P. Bochsler, C. Briois, U. Calmonte, M. Combi, J. De Keyser, P. Eberhardt, B. Fiethe, S.A. Fuselier, M. Galand, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, A. Jäckel, H.U. Keller, E. Kopp, A. Korth, E. Kührt, L. Le Roy, U. Mall, B. Marty, O. Mousis, E. Neefs, T. Owen, H. Rème, M. Rubin, T. Sémon, C. Tornow, C.-Y. Tzou, J.H. Waite, P. Wurz, Time variability and heterogeneity in the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Science 347(1), 0276 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. M. Hoang, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, A. Beth, A. Bieler, U. Calmonte, M.R. Combi, J. De Keyser, B. Fiethe, N. Fougere, S.A. Fuselier, A. Galli, P. Garnier, S. Gasc, T. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, A. Jäckel, A. Korth, J. Lasue, L. Le Roy, U. Mall, H. Rème, M. Rubin, T. Sémon, D. Toublanc, C.-Y. Tzou, J.H. Waite, P. Wurz, The heterogeneous coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko as seen by ROSINA: H2O, CO2, and CO from September 2014 to February 2016. Astron. Astrophys. 600, 77 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629900 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. X. Hu, X. Shi, H. Sierks, M. Fulle, J. Blum, H.U. Keller, E. Kührt, B. Davidsson, C. Güttler, B. Gundlach, M. Pajola, D. Bodewits, J.-B. Vincent, N. Oklay, M. Massironi, S. Fornasier, C. Tubiana, O. Groussin, S. Boudreault, S. Höfner, S. Mottola, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M. A’Hearn, J. Agarwal, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, M.R. El-Maarry, A. Gicquel, P. Gutierrez-Marques, P.J. Gutiérrez, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, N. Thomas, Seasonal erosion and restoration of the dust cover on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko as observed by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta. Astron. Astrophys. 604, 114 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629910 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. W.F. Huebner, Origins of cometary materials. Space Sci. Rev. 138, 5–25 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-007-9299-7 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. W.F. Huebner, J. Benkhoff, From coma abundances to nucleus composition. Space Sci. Rev. 90, 117–130 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005289829692 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. W.F. Huebner, J. Benkhoff, M.-T. Capria, A. Coradini, C. De Sanctis, R. Orosei, D. Prialnik (eds.), Heat and Gas Diffusion in Comet Nuclei (The International Space Science Institute/ESA Publications Division, Bern/Noordwijk, 2006). ISBN 1608-280X Google Scholar
  76. D.W. Hughes, The size, mass, mass loss and age of Halley’s comet. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 213, 103–109 (1985).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/213.1.103 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. G.R. Hunt, J.W. Salisbury, C.J. Lenhoff, Visible and near-infrared spectra of minerals and rocks—IV. Sulphides and sulphates. Mod. Geol. 3, 1–14 (1971) Google Scholar
  78. L. Jorda, R. Gaskell, C. Capanna, S. Hviid, P. Lamy, J. Ďurech, G. Faury, O. Groussin, P. Gutiérrez, C. Jackman, S.J. Keihm, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, E. Kührt, S. Marchi, S. Mottola, E. Palmer, F.P. Schloerb, H. Sierks, J.-B. Vincent, M.F. A’Hearn, C. Barbieri, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.A. Barucci, J.L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, C. Güttler, W.-H. Ip, J.R. Kramm, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, K.-P. Wenzel, The global shape, density and rotation of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from preperihelion Rosetta/OSIRIS observations. Icarus 277, 257–278 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.05.002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. B. Jost, A. Pommerol, O. Poch, Z. Yoldi, S. Fornasier, P.H. Hasselmann, C. Feller, N. Carrasco, C. Szopa, N. Thomas, Bidirectional reflectance and VIS-NIR spectroscopy of cometary analogues under simulated space conditions. Planet. Space Sci. 145, 14–27 (2017a).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2017.07.009 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. B. Jost, A. Pommerol, O. Poch, Y. Brouet, S. Fornasier, N. Carrasco, C. Szopa, N. Thomas, Bidirectional reflectance of laboratory cometary analogues to interpret the spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Planet. Space Sci. 148, 1–11 (2017b).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2017.09.009 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. H.U. Keller, The nucleus of Comet Halley, in Diversity and Similarity of Comets, ed. by E.J. Rolfe, B. Battrick. ESA Special Publication, vol. 278 (1987) Google Scholar
  82. L.P. Keller, S. Bajt, G.A. Baratta, J. Borg, J.P. Bradley, D.E. Brownlee, H. Busemann, J.R. Brucato, M. Burchell, L. Colangeli, L. D’Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Ferrini, G. Flynn, I.A. Franchi, M. Fries, M.M. Grady, G.A. Graham, F. Grossemy, A. Kearsley, G. Matrajt, K. Nakamura-Messenger, V. Mennella, L. Nittler, M.E. Palumbo, F.J. Stadermann, P. Tsou, A. Rotundi, S.A. Sandford, C. Snead, A. Steele, D. Wooden, M. Zolensky, Infrared spectroscopy of Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by Stardust. Science 314, 1728 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1135796 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. H.U. Keller, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, H. Rickman, R. Rodrigo, K.-P. Wenzel, H. Sierks, M.F. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, M. Angulo, M.E. Bailey, P. Barthol, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, G. Bianchini, J.-L. Boit, V. Brown, J.A. Burns, I. Büttner, J.M. Castro, G. Cremonese, W. Curdt, V. da Deppo, S. Debei, M. de Cecco, K. Dohlen, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, D. Germerott, F. Gliem, G.P. Guizzo, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, D. Koschny, J.R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, A. Llebaria, A. López, A. López-Jimenez, J. López-Moreno, R. Meller, H. Michalik, M.D. Michelena, R. Müller, G. Naletto, A. Origné, G. Parzianello, M. Pertile, C. Quintana, R. Ragazzoni, P. Ramous, K.-U. Reiche, M. Reina, J. Rodríguez, G. Rousset, L. Sabau, A. Sanz, J.-P. Sivan, K. Stöckner, J. Tabero, U. Telljohann, N. Thomas, V. Timon, G. Tomasch, T. Wittrock, M. Zaccariotto, OSIRIS the scientific camera system onboard Rosetta. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 433–506 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9128-4 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. H.U. Keller, S. Mottola, B. Davidsson, S.E. Schröder, Y. Skorov, E. Kührt, O. Groussin, M. Pajola, S.F. Hviid, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, M.F. A’Hearn, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, P.J. Gutiérrez, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, J.R. Kramm, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, G. Naletto, L. Sabau, N. Thomas, J.-B. Vincent, K.-P. Wenzel, J. Agarwal, C. Güttler, N. Oklay, C. Tubiana, Insolation, erosion, and morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 34 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525964 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. H.U. Keller, S. Mottola, S.F. Hviid, J. Agarwal, E. Kührt, Y. Skorov, K. Otto, J.-B. Vincent, N. Oklay, S.E. Schröder, B. Davidsson, M. Pajola, X. Shi, D. Bodewits, I. Toth, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, J.R. Kramm, M. Küppers, L.-M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez-Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, C. Tubiana, N. Thomas, Seasonal mass transfer on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 357–371 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1726 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. J.F. Kerridge, Formation and processing of organics in the early solar system. Space Sci. Rev. 90, 275–288 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005222804192 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. B.N. Khare, C. Sagan, W.R. Thompson, E.T. Arakawa, C. Meisse, P.S. Tuminello, Optical properties of poly-HCN and their astronomical applications. Can. J. Chem. 72, 678–694 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. J. Kissel, K. Altwegg, B.C. Clark, L. Colangeli, H. Cottin, S. Czempiel, J. Eibl, C. Engrand, H.M. Fehringer, B. Feuerbacher, M. Fomenkova, A. Glasmachers, J.M. Greenberg, E. Grün, G. Haerendel, H. Henkel, M. Hilchenbach, H. von Hoerner, H. Höfner, K. Hornung, E.K. Jessberger, A. Koch, H. Krüger, Y. Langevin, P. Parigger, F. Raulin, F. Rüdenauer, J. Rynö, E.R. Schmid, R. Schulz, J. Silén, W. Steiger, T. Stephan, L. Thirkell, R. Thomas, K. Torkar, N.G. Utterback, K. Varmuza, K.P. Wanczek, W. Werther, H. Zscheeg, Cosima high resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer for the analysis of cometary dust particles onboard Rosetta. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 823–867 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9083-0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. V.M. Kolb, P.J. Liesch, Astrobiological relevance of phenols and their silicates, in Proceedings of the SPIE, Instruments, Methods, and Missions for Astrobiology XI, vol. 7097 (2008), p. 709706.  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.792665 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. H. Krüger, F. Goesmann, C. Giri, I. Wright, A. Morse, J.H. Bredehöft, S. Ulamec, B. Cozzoni, P. Ehrenfreund, T. Gautier, S. McKenna-Lawlor, F. Raulin, H. Steininger, C. Szopa, Decay of COSAC and Ptolemy mass spectra at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 600, 56 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201630286 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. S. Kwok, Enrichment of the solar system by organic compounds delivered from evolved stars. Adv. Space Res. 40, 1613–1619 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.05.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. F. La Forgia, L. Giacomini, M. Lazzarin, M. Massironi, N. Oklay, F. Scholten, M. Pajola, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, C. Barbieri, G. Naletto, E. Simioni, F. Preusker, N. Thomas, H. Sierks, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, A.-T. Auger, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, F. Ferri, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, I. Hall, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, J.R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.-M. Lara, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Magrin, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, S. Mottola, A. Pommerol, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Geomorphology and spectrophotometry of Philae’s landing site on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 41 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525983 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. I.-L. Lai, W.-H. Ip, C.-C. Su, J.-S. Wu, J.-C. Lee, Z.-Y. Lin, Y. Liao, N. Thomas, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Boudreault, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, X. Shi, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Gas outflow and dust transport of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 533–546 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. P.L. Lamy, I. Toth, H.A. Weaver, L. Jorda, M. Kaasalainen, P.J. Gutiérrez, Hubble Space Telescope observations of the nucleus and inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 458, 669–678 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065253 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Y. Langevin, M. Hilchenbach, N. Ligier, S. Merouane, K. Hornung, C. Engrand, R. Schulz, J. Kissel, J. Rynö, P. Eng, Typology of dust particles collected by the COSIMA mass spectrometer in the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov Gerasimenko. Icarus 271, 76–97 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.01.027 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. L. Le Roy, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, J.-J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, C. Briois, U. Calmonte, M.R. Combi, J. De Keyser, F. Dhooghe, B. Fiethe, S.A. Fuselier, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, M. Hässig, A. Jäckel, M. Rubin, C.-Y. Tzou, Inventory of the volatiles on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from Rosetta/ROSINA. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 1 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. S. Lee, P. von Allmen, M. Allen, G. Beaudin, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, M. Choukroun, J. Crovisier, P. Encrenaz, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, P. Hartogh, M. Hofstadter, W.-H. Ip, M. Janssen, C. Jarchow, S. Keihm, E. Lellouch, C. Leyrat, L. Rezac, F.P. Schloerb, T. Spilker, B. Gaskell, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, H. Sierks, Spatial and diurnal variation of water outgassing on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko observed from Rosetta/MIRO in August 2014. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 5 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526155 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. H. Leroux, P. Cuvillier, B. Zanda, R.H. Hewins, GEMS-like material in the matrix of the Paris meteorite and the early stages of alteration of CM chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 170, 247–265 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.09.019 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. J.-Y. Li, M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, C.J. Crockett, T.L. Farnham, C.M. Lisse, L.A. McFadden, K.J. Meech, J.M. Sunshine, P.C. Thomas, J. Veverka, Deep Impact photometry of Comet 9P/Tempel 1. Icarus 187, 41–55 (2007a).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.018 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. J.-Y. Li, M.F. A’Hearn, L.A. McFadden, M.J.S. Belton, Photometric analysis and disk-resolved thermal modeling of Comet 19P/Borrelly from Deep Space 1 data. Icarus 188, 195–211 (2007b).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2006.11.015 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. J.-Y. Li, M.F. A’Hearn, T.L. Farnham, L.A. McFadden, Photometric analysis of the nucleus of Comet 81P/Wild 2 from Stardust images. Icarus 204, 209–226 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2009.06.002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. J.-Y. Li, S. Besse, M.F. A’Hearn, M.J.S. Belton, D. Bodewits, T.L. Farnham, K.P. Klaasen, C.M. Lisse, K.J. Meech, J.M. Sunshine, P.C. Thomas, Photometric properties of the nucleus of Comet 103P/Hartley 2. Icarus 222, 559–570 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. A. Longobardo, E. Palomba, F. Capaccioni, M. Ciarniello, F. Tosi, S. Mottola, L.V. Moroz, G. Filacchione, A. Raponi, E. Quirico, A. Zinzi, M.T. Capria, D. Bockelee-Morvan, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, G. Rinaldi, F. Dirri, Photometric behaviour of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and analysis of its pre-perihelion diurnal variations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 346–356 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. S.C. Lowry, A. Fitzsimmons, S. Collander-Brown, CCD photometry of distant comets. III. Ensemble properties of Jupiter-family comets. Astron. Astrophys. 397, 329–343 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20021486 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. A. Lucchetti, G. Cremonese, L. Jorda, F. Poulet, J.-P. Bibring, M. Pajola, F. La Forgia, M. Massironi, M.R. El-Maarry, N. Oklay, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, J. Knollenberg, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Characterization of the Abydos region through OSIRIS high-resolution images in support of CIVA measurements. Astron. Astrophys. 585, 1 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527330 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. A. Lucchetti, M. Pajola, S. Fornasier, S. Mottola, L. Penasa, L. Jorda, G. Cremonese, C. Feller, P.H. Hasselmann, M. Massironi, S. Ferrari, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Boudreault, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, M. Hoffman, S.F. Hviid, W.H. Ip, J. Knollenberg, J.R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, F. La Forgia, L.Z. Lin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, X. Shi, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.B. Vincent, Geomorphological and spectrophotometric analysis of Seth’s circular niches on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko using OSIRIS images. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 238–251 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1590 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. A. Luspay-Kuti, M. Hässig, S.A. Fuselier, K.E. Mandt, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, S. Gasc, A. Jäckel, L. Le Roy, M. Rubin, C.-Y. Tzou, P. Wurz, O. Mousis, F. Dhooghe, J.J. Berthelier, B. Fiethe, T.I. Gombosi, U. Mall, Composition-dependent outgassing of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from ROSINA/DFMS. Implications for nucleus heterogeneity? Astron. Astrophys. 583, 4 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. A. Luspay-Kuti, O. Mousis, M. Hässig, S.A. Fuselier, J.I. Lunine, B. Marty, K.E. Mandt, P. Wurz, M. Rubin, The presence of clathrates in comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Sci. Adv. 2, 1501781 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1501781 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. T. Mannel, M.S. Bentley, R. Schmied, H. Jeszenszky, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, J. Romstedt, K. Torkar, Fractal cometary dust—a window into the early Solar system. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 304–311 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2898 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. U. Marboeuf, B. Schmitt, How to link the relative abundances of gas species in coma of comets to their initial chemical composition? Icarus 242, 225–248 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. N. Masoumzadeh, N. Oklay, L. Kolokolova, H. Sierks, S. Fornasier, M.A. Barucci, J.-B. Vincent, C. Tubiana, C. Güttler, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, S. Mottola, P.H. Hasselmann, C. Feller, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.F. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B.J.R. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M. Fulle, A. Gicquel, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, I. Hall, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, X. Shi, N. Thomas, Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images. Astron. Astrophys. 599, 11 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. J. Mayo Greenberg, C.X. Mendoza-Gómez, The seeding of life by comets. Adv. Space Res. 12, 169–180 (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-1177(92)90170-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. D.S. McKay, J.L. Carter, W.W. Boles, C.C. Allen, J.H. Allton, JSC-1: a new lunar regolith simulant, in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Lunar and Planetary Inst. Technical Report, vol. 24 (1993) Google Scholar
  114. G. Moreels, J. Clairemidi, P. Hermine, P. Brechignac, P. Rousselot, Detection of a polycyclic aromatic molecule in comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 282, 643–656 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. L.V. Moroz, G. Arnold, A.V. Korochantsev, R. Wäsch, Natural solid bitumens as possible analogs for cometary and asteroid organics: 1. Reflectance spectroscopy of pure bitumens. Icarus 134, 253–268 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.1998.5955 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. L.V. Moroz, K. Markus, G. Arnold, D. Henkel, D. Kappel, U. Schade, M. Ciarniello, B. Rousseau, E. Quirico, B. Schmitt, F. Capaccioni, D. Bockelee-Morvan, G. Filacchione, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, A. Longobardo, Laboratory spectral reflectance studies aimed at providing clues to composition of refractory phases of comet 67P/CG’s nucleus, in European Planetary Science Congress, vol. 11 (2017). EPSC2017-266 Google Scholar
  117. S. Mottola, S. Lowry, C. Snodgrass, P.L. Lamy, I. Toth, A. Rożek, H. Sierks, M.F. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, C. Barbieri, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, M. De Cecco, S. Debei, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P. Gutiérrez, S.F. Hviid, W. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, D. Koschny, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, G. Naletto, H. Rickman, R. Rodrigo, L. Sabau, N. Thomas, K.-P. Wenzel, J. Agarwal, I. Bertini, F. Ferri, C. Güttler, S. Magrin, N. Oklay, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, The rotation state of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from approach observations with the OSIRIS cameras on Rosetta. Astron. Astrophys. 569, 2 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424590 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. S. Mottola, G. Arnold, H.-G. Grothues, R. Jaumann, H. Michaelis, G. Neukum, J.-P. Bibring, S.E. Schröder, M. Hamm, K.A. Otto, I. Pelivan, G. Proffe, F. Scholten, D. Tirsch, M. Kreslavsky, E. Remetean, F. Souvannavong, B. Dolives, The structure of the regolith on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from ROLIS descent imaging. Science 349(2), (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab0232
  119. O. Mousis, A. Guilbert-Lepoutre, B. Brugger, L. Jorda, J.S. Kargel, A. Bouquet, A.-T. Auger, P. Lamy, P. Vernazza, N. Thomas, H. Sierks, Pits formation from volatile outgassing on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astrophys. J. Lett. 814, 5 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/814/1/L5 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. M.J. Mumma, S.B. Charnley, The chemical composition of comets—emerging taxonomies and natal heritage. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 471–524 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-astro-081309-130811 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. G.M. Muñoz Caro, W.A. Schutte, UV-photoprocessing of interstellar ice analogs: new infrared spectroscopic results. Astron. Astrophys. 412, 121–132 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20031408 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. R.M. Nelson, M.D. Rayman, H.A. Weaver, The Deep Space 1 encounter with Comet 19P/Borrelly. Icarus 167, 1–3 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2003.10.008 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. A. Oehler, G. Neukum, Visible and near IR albedo measurements of ice/dust mixtures. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 253–256 (1991).  https://doi.org/10.1029/91GL00174 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. N. Oklay, J.M. Sunshine, M. Pajola, A. Pommerol, J.-B. Vincent, S. Mottola, H. Sierks, S. Fornasier, M.A. Barucci, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, L.M. Lara, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.F. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B.J.R. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, M. Fulle, A. Gicquel, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, I. Hall, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, M. Lazzarin, Z.-Y. Lin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, X. Shi, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, Comparative study of water ice exposures on cometary nuclei using multispectral imaging data. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 394–414 (2016a).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2918 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. N. Oklay, J.-B. Vincent, S. Fornasier, M. Pajola, S. Besse, B.J.R. Davidsson, L.M. Lara, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, H. Sierks, A.M. Barucci, F. Scholten, F. Preusker, A. Pommerol, N. Masoumzadeh, M. Lazzarin, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.F. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, I. Hall, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, Z.-Y. Lin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, F. Moreno, X. Shi, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, Variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in regions showing activity. Astron. Astrophys. 586, 80 (2016b).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527369 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. N. Oklay, S. Mottola, J.-B. Vincent, M. Pajola, S. Fornasier, S.F. Hviid, D. Kappel, E. Kührt, H.U. Keller, M.A. Barucci, C. Feller, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, I. Hall, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M.F. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B.J.R. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, J.D.P. Deshapriya, M. Fulle, A. Gicquel, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, P.H. Hasselmann, M. Hofmann, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, Z.-Y. Lin, J.J.L. Moreno, A. Lucchetti, F. Marzari, N. Masoumzadeh, G. Naletto, A. Pommerol, X. Shi, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, Long-term survival of surface water ice on comet 67P. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 469, 582–597 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. M. Pajola, S. Höfner, J.B. Vincent, N. Oklay, F. Scholten, F. Preusker, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, S. Fornasier, S. Lowry, C. Feller, P.H. Hasselmann, C. Güttler, C. Tubiana, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, S. Boudreault, G. Cremonese, V. de Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. de Cecco, J. Deller, J.D.P. Deshapriya, M.R. El-Maarry, S. Ferrari, F. Ferri, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P. Gutierrez, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, Z.-Y. Lin, M. Lazzarin, A. Lucchetti, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, H. Michalik, L. Penasa, A. Pommerol, E. Simioni, N. Thomas, I. Toth, E. Baratti, The pristine interior of comet 67P revealed by the combined Aswan outburst and cliff collapse. Nat. Astron. 1, 0092 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-017-0092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. R. Papoular, The use of kerogen data in understanding the properties and evolution of interstellar carbonaceous dust. Astron. Astrophys. 378, 597–607 (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20011224 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Y.J. Pendleton, L.J. Allamandola, The organic refractory material in the diffuse interstellar medium: mid-infrared spectroscopic constraints. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 138, 75–98 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1086/322999 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. D. Perna, M. Fulchignoni, M.A. Barucci, S. Fornasier, C. Feller, J.D.P. Deshapriya, P.H. Hasselmann, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, M. A’Hearn, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, J. Deller, M. De Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, H.U. Keller, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Multivariate statistical analysis of OSIRIS/Rosetta spectrophotometric data of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 600, 115 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201630015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. S. Pizzarello, G.W. Cooper, G.J. Flynn, in The Nature and Distribution of the Organic Material in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Interplanetary Dust Particles, ed. by D.S. Lauretta, H.Y. McSween (2006), pp. 625–651 Google Scholar
  132. O. Poch, A. Pommerol, B. Jost, N. Carrasco, C. Szopa, N. Thomas, Sublimation of ice-tholins mixtures: a morphological and spectro-photometric study. Icarus 266, 288–305 (2016a).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.11.006 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. O. Poch, A. Pommerol, B. Jost, N. Carrasco, C. Szopa, N. Thomas, Sublimation of water ice mixed with silicates and tholins: evolution of surface texture and reflectance spectra, with implications for comets. Icarus 267, 154–173 (2016b).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.12.017 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. A. Pommerol, N. Thomas, M.R. El-Maarry, M. Pajola, O. Groussin, A.-T. Auger, N. Oklay, S. Fornasier, C. Feller, B. Davidsson, A. Gracia-Berná, B. Jost, R. Marschall, O. Poch, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, F. La Forgia, H.U. Keller, E. Kührt, S.C. Lowry, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, I. Bertini, S. Boudreault, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, M. De Cecco, S. Debei, C. Güttler, M. Fulle, P.J. Gutierrez, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Küppers, L. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.L. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, OSIRIS observations of meter-sized exposures of H2O ice at the surface of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko and interpretation using laboratory experiments. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 25 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525977 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. F. Preusker, F. Scholten, K.-D. Matz, T. Roatsch, K. Willner, S.F. Hviid, J. Knollenberg, L. Jorda, P.J. Gutiérrez, E. Kührt, S. Mottola, M.F. A’Hearn, N. Thomas, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, C. Güttler, W.-H. Ip, J.R. Kramm, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, H. Michalik, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, Shape model, reference system definition, and cartographic mapping standards for comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko–Stereo-photogrammetric analysis of Rosetta/OSIRIS image data. Astron. Astrophys. 583, 33 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. D. Prialnik, M.F. A’Hearn, K.J. Meech, A mechanism for short-lived cometary outbursts at sunrise as observed by Deep Impact on 9P/Tempel 1. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 388, 20–23 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3933.2008.00491.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. E. Quirico, G. Montagnac, V. Lees, P.F. McMillan, C. Szopa, G. Cernogora, J.-N. Rouzaud, P. Simon, J.-M. Bernard, P. Coll, N. Fray, R.D. Minard, F. Raulin, B. Reynard, B. Schmitt, New experimental constraints on the composition and structure of tholins. Icarus 198, 218–231 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2008.07.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. E. Quirico, L.V. Moroz, B. Schmitt, G. Arnold, M. Faure, P. Beck, L. Bonal, M. Ciarniello, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, S. Erard, C. Leyrat, D. Bockelée-Morvan, A. Zinzi, E. Palomba, P. Drossart, F. Tosi, M.T. Capria, M.C. De Sanctis, A. Raponi, S. Fonti, F. Mancarella, V. Orofino, A. Barucci, M.I. Blecka, R. Carlson, D. Despan, A. Faure, S. Fornasier, M.S. Gudipati, A. Longobardo, K. Markus, V. Mennella, F. Merlin, G. Piccioni, B. Rousseau, F. Taylor, Refractory and semi-volatile organics at the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko: Insights from the VIRTIS/Rosetta imaging spectrometer. Icarus 272, 32–47 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.028 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. A. Raponi, M. Ciarniello, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, F. Tosi, M.C. De Sanctis, M.T. Capria, M.A. Barucci, A. Longobardo, E. Palomba, D. Kappel, G. Arnold, S. Mottola, B. Rousseau, E. Quirico, G. Rinaldi, S. Erard, D. Bockelee-Morvan, C. Leyrat, The temporal evolution of exposed water ice-rich areas on the surface of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko: spectral analysis. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 476–490 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw3281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. A. Raponi, M. Ciarniello, G. Filacchione, F. Capaccioni, M.C. De Sanctis, L.V. Moroz, V. Vinogradoff, F. Tosi, G. Arnold, E. Quirico, V. Mennella, P. Beck, C. Pilorget, A. Pommerol, S. Schroder, D. Kappel, I. Istiqomah, B. Rousseau, O. Poch, Organic features on the spectrum of 67P Churyumov–Gerasimenko from the improved calibration of VIRTIS-M-IR, in European Planetary Science Congress 2018, 16–21 September 2018, vol. EPSC2018-865 (2018) Google Scholar
  141. R. Reinhard, The Giotto mission to Halley’s comet. Adv. Space Res. 2, 97–107 (1982).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-1177(82)90293-9 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. W. Riedler, K. Torkar, H. Jeszenszky, J. Romstedt, H.S.C. Alleyne, H. Arends, W. Barth, J.V.D. Biezen, B. Butler, P. Ehrenfreund, M. Fehringer, G. Fremuth, J. Gavira, O. Havnes, E.K. Jessberger, R. Kassing, W. Klöck, C. Koeberl, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, M. Maurette, F. Rüdenauer, R. Schmidt, G. Stangl, M. Steller, I. Weber, MIDAS the Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System for the Rosetta mission. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 869–904 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9040-y ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. A. Rotundi, H. Sierks, V. Della Corte, M. Fulle, P.J. Gutierrez, L. Lara, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J.J. López-Moreno, M. Accolla, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, N. Altobelli, F. Angrilli, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, D. Bodewits, E. Bussoletti, L. Colangeli, M. Cosi, G. Cremonese, J.-F. Crifo, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, F. Esposito, M. Ferrari, S. Fornasier, F. Giovane, B. Gustafson, S.F. Green, O. Groussin, E. Grün, C. Güttler, M.L. Herranz, S.F. Hviid, W. Ip, S. Ivanovski, J.M. Jerónimo, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, M. Lazzarin, M.R. Leese, A.C. López-Jiménez, F. Lucarelli, S.C. Lowry, F. Marzari, E.M. Epifani, J.A.M. McDonnell, V. Mennella, H. Michalik, A. Molina, R. Morales, F. Moreno, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, J.L. Ortiz, E. Palomba, P. Palumbo, J.-M. Perrin, J. Rodríguez, L. Sabau, C. Snodgrass, R. Sordini, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, P. Weissman, K.-P. Wenzel, V. Zakharov, J.C. Zarnecki, Dust measurements in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko inbound to the Sun. Science 347(1), 3905 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa3905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. B. Rousseau, S. Érard, P. Beck, É. Quirico, B. Schmitt, O. Brissaud, G. Montes-Hernandez, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, D. Bockelée-Morvan, C. Leyrat, M. Ciarniello, A. Raponi, D. Kappel, G. Arnold, L.V. Moroz, E. Palomba, F. Tosi, Laboratory simulations of the Vis-NIR spectra of comet 67P using sub-\(\mu\)m sized cosmochemical analogues. Icarus 306, 306–318 (2018) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. M. Rubin, N. Fougere, K. Altwegg, M.R. Combi, L. Le Roy, V.M. Tenishev, N. Thomas, Mass transport around comets and its impact on the seasonal differences in water production rates. Astrophys. J. 788, 168 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/788/2/168 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. M. Rubin, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, A. Bar-Nun, J.-J. Berthelier, A. Bieler, P. Bochsler, C. Briois, U. Calmonte, M. Combi, J. De Keyser, F. Dhooghe, P. Eberhardt, B. Fiethe, S.A. Fuselier, S. Gasc, T.I. Gombosi, K.C. Hansen, M. Hässig, A. Jäckel, E. Kopp, A. Korth, L. Le Roy, U. Mall, B. Marty, O. Mousis, T. Owen, H. Rème, T. Sémon, C.-Y. Tzou, J.H. Waite, P. Wurz, Molecular nitrogen in comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko indicates a low formation temperature. Science 348, 232–235 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa6100 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. C. Sagan, B.N. Khare, Tholins—organic chemistry of interstellar grains and gas. Nature 277, 102–107 (1979).  https://doi.org/10.1038/277102a0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. R.Z. Sagdeev, G.A. Avanesov, Y.L. Ziman, V.I. Moroz, V.I. Tarnopolsky, B.S. Zhukov, V.A. Shamis, B. Smith, I. Toth, TV experiment of the Vega mission: photometry of the nucleus and the inner coma, in ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley’s Comet. Dust and Nucleus, vol. 2 (1986), pp. 317–326. SEE N87-25908 19-90 Google Scholar
  149. S.E. Schröder, Y. Grynko, A. Pommerol, H.U. Keller, N. Thomas, T.L. Roush, Laboratory observations and simulations of phase reddening. Icarus 239, 201–216 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.06.010 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. M.A. Sephton, I.P. Wright, I. Gilmour, J.W. de Leeuw, M.M. Grady, C.T. Pillinger, High molecular weight organic matter in martian meteorites. Planet. Space Sci. 50, 711–716 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-0633(02)00053-3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, A.-T. Auger, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, C. Capanna, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, F. Ferri, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, R. Gaskell, L. Giacomini, O. Groussin, P. Gutierrez-Marques, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, N. Hoekzema, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, C. Leyrat, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Magrin, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, H. Michalik, R. Moissl, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, M. Pertile, F. Preusker, L. Sabau, F. Scholten, C. Snodgrass, N. Thomas, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, K.-P. Wenzel, M. Zaccariotto, M. Pätzold, On the nucleus structure and activity of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Science 347(1), 1044 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Y. Skorov, J. Blum, Dust release and tensile strength of the non-volatile layer of cometary nuclei. Icarus 221, 1–11 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.01.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. G. Socrates, Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies—Tables and Charts (Wiley, New York, 2001) Google Scholar
  154. L.A. Soderblom, T.L. Becker, G. Bennett, D.C. Boice, D.T. Britt, R.H. Brown, B.J. Buratti, C. Isbell, B. Giese, T. Hare, M.D. Hicks, E. Howington-Kraus, R.L. Kirk, M. Lee, R.M. Nelson, J. Oberst, T.C. Owen, M.D. Rayman, B.R. Sandel, S.A. Stern, N. Thomas, R.V. Yelle, Observations of Comet 19P/Borrelly by the miniature integrated camera and spectrometer aboard Deep Space 1. Science 296, 1087–1091 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1069527 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. S.A. Stern, D.C. Slater, J. Scherrer, J. Stone, M. Versteeg, M.F. A’Hearn, J.L. Bertaux, P.D. Feldman, M.C. Festou, J.W. Parker, O.H.W. Siegmund, Alice: the Rosetta ultraviolet imaging spectrograph. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 507–527 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9035-8 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. J.M. Sunshine, M.F. A’Hearn, O. Groussin, J.-Y. Li, M.J.S. Belton, W.A. Delamere, J. Kissel, K.P. Klaasen, L.A. McFadden, K.J. Meech, H.J. Melosh, P.H. Schultz, P.C. Thomas, J. Veverka, D.K. Yeomans, I.C. Busko, M. Desnoyer, T.L. Farnham, L.M. Feaga, D.L. Hampton, D.J. Lindler, C.M. Lisse, D.D. Wellnitz, Exposed water ice deposits on the surface of Comet 9P/Tempel 1. Science 311, 1453–1455 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1123632 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. M.G.G.T. Taylor, N. Altobelli, B.J. Buratti, M. Choukroun, The Rosetta mission orbiter science overview: the comet phase. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 375, 20160262 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2016.0262 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. N. Thomas, H.U. Keller, The colour of Comet P/Halley’s nucleus and dust. Astron. Astrophys. 213, 487–494 (1989) ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. N. Thomas, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, H. Rickman, D. Koschny, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, F. Angrilli, A.-T. Auger, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, M. De Cecco, S. Debei, M.R. El-Maarry, F. Ferri, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, L. Giacomini, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutierrez, C. Güttler, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J.L. Moreno, S. Magrin, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, H. Michalik, R. Moissl, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, A. Pommerol, F. Preusker, L. Sabau, F. Scholten, C. Snodgrass, C. Tubiana, J.-B. Vincent, K.-P. Wenzel, The morphological diversity of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Science 347(1), 0440 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa0440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. C. Tubiana, H. Böhnhardt, J. Agarwal, M. Drahus, L. Barrera, J.L. Ortiz, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko at large heliocentric distance. Astron. Astrophys. 527, 113 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201016027 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. J.-B. Vincent, D. Bodewits, S. Besse, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.F. A’Hearn, A.-T. Auger, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, C. Capanna, G. Cremonese, V. da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. de Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, F. Ferri, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, R. Gaskell, L. Giacomini, O. Groussin, A. Guilbert-Lepoutre, P. Gutierrez-Marques, P.J. Gutiérrez, C. Güttler, N. Hoekzema, S. Höfner, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, F. La Forgia, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, V. Lee, C. Leyrat, Z.-Y. Lin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Lowry, S. Magrin, L. Maquet, S. Marchi, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, H. Michalik, R. Moissl, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse. Nature 523, 63–66 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14564 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. J.-B. Vincent, N. Oklay, M. Pajola, S. Höfner, H. Sierks, X. Hu, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, M.F. A’Hearn, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, M.R. El-Maarry, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, P. Gutiérrez-Marquez, C. Güttler, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, Z.-Y. Lin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, S. Lowry, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, F. Moreno, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, X. Shi, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, Are fractured cliffs the source of cometary dust jets? Insights from OSIRIS/Rosetta at 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Astron. Astrophys. 587, 14 (2016a).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. J.-B. Vincent, M.F. A’Hearn, Z.-Y. Lin, M.R. El-Maarry, M. Pajola, H. Sierks, C. Barbieri, P.L. Lamy, R. Rodrigo, D. Koschny, H. Rickman, H.U. Keller, J. Agarwal, M.A. Barucci, J.-L. Bertaux, I. Bertini, S. Besse, D. Bodewits, G. Cremonese, V. Da Deppo, B. Davidsson, S. Debei, M. De Cecco, J. Deller, S. Fornasier, M. Fulle, A. Gicquel, O. Groussin, P.J. Gutiérrez, P. Gutiérrez-Marquez, C. Güttler, S. Höfner, M. Hofmann, S.F. Hviid, W.-H. Ip, L. Jorda, J. Knollenberg, G. Kovacs, J.-R. Kramm, E. Kührt, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, M. Lazzarin, J.J. Lopez Moreno, F. Marzari, M. Massironi, S. Mottola, G. Naletto, N. Oklay, F. Preusker, F. Scholten, X. Shi, N. Thomas, I. Toth, C. Tubiana, Summer fireworks on comet 67P. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 462, 184–194 (2016b).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. F.L. Whipple, A comet model. I. The acceleration of Comet Encke. Astrophys. J. 111, 375–394 (1950).  https://doi.org/10.1086/145272 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. D.H. Wooden, S.B. Charnley, P. Ehrenfreund, in Composition and Evolution of Interstellar Clouds, ed. by G.W. Kronk (2004), pp. 33–66 Google Scholar
  166. I.P. Wright, S.J. Barber, G.H. Morgan, A.D. Morse, S. Sheridan, D.J. Andrews, J. Maynard, D. Yau, S.T. Evans, M.R. Leese, J.C. Zarnecki, B.J. Kent, N.R. Waltham, M.S. Whalley, S. Heys, D.L. Drummond, R.L. Edeson, E.C. Sawyer, R.F. Turner, C.T. Pillinger, Ptolemy an instrument to measure stable isotopic ratios of key volatiles on a cometary nucleus. Space Sci. Rev. 128, 363–381 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-006-9001-5 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. I.P. Wright, S. Sheridan, S.J. Barber, G.H. Morgan, D.J. Andrews, A.D. Morse, CHO-bearing organic compounds at the surface of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko revealed by Ptolemy. Science 349(2) (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aab0673
  168. I.P. Wright, S. Sheridan, G.H. Morgan, S.J. Barber, A.D. Morse, On the attempts to measure water (and other volatiles) directly at the surface of a comet. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 375, 20150385 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2015.0385 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Z. Yoldi, A. Pommerol, B. Jost, O. Poch, J. Gouman, N. Thomas, VIS-NIR reflectance of water ice/regolith analogue mixtures and implications for the detectability of ice mixed within planetary regoliths. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42, 6205–6212 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064780 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianrico Filacchione
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olivier Groussin
    • 2
  • Clémence Herny
    • 3
  • David Kappel
    • 4
    • 5
  • Stefano Mottola
    • 5
  • Nilda Oklay
    • 5
  • Antoine Pommerol
    • 3
  • Ian Wright
    • 6
  • Zurine Yoldi
    • 3
  • Mauro Ciarniello
    • 1
  • Lyuba Moroz
    • 7
    • 5
  • Andrea Raponi
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Space Astrophysics and PlanetologyINAF-IAPSRomeItaly
  2. 2.Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CNESLAMMarseilleFrance
  3. 3.Physikalisches InstitutUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Institute of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Planetary ResearchGerman Aerospace Center (DLR)BerlinGermany
  6. 6.Department of Physical SciencesThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  7. 7.Institute of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations