Space Science Reviews

, 214:92 | Cite as

Water and Volatile Inventories of Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars

  • James P. GreenwoodEmail author
  • Shun-ichiro Karato
  • Kathleen E. Vander Kaaden
  • Kaveh Pahlevan
  • Tomohiro Usui
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The Delivery of Water to Protoplanets, Planets and Satellites


We review the geochemical observations of water, \(\mbox{D}/\mbox{H}\) and volatile element abundances of the inner Solar System bodies, Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars. We focus primarily on the inventories of water in these bodies, but also consider other volatiles when they can inform us about water. For Mercury, we have no data for internal water, but the reducing nature of the surface of Mercury would suggest that some hydrogen may be retained in its core. We evaluate the current knowledge and understanding of venusian water and volatiles and conclude that the venusian mantle was likely endowed with as much water as Earth of which it retains a small but non-negligible fraction. Estimates of the abundance of the Moon’s internal water vary from Earth-like to one to two orders of magnitude more depleted. Cl, K, and Zn isotope anomalies for lunar samples argue that the giant impact left a unique geochemical fingerprint on the Moon, but not the Earth. For Mars, an early magma ocean likely generated a thick crust; this combined with a lack of crustal recycling mechanisms would have led to early isolation of the Martian mantle from later delivery of water and volatiles from surface reservoirs or late accretion. The abundance estimates of Martian mantle water are similar to those of the terrestrial mantle, suggesting some similarities in the water and volatile inventories for the terrestrial planets and the Moon.


Water Hydrogen isotopes Mercury Venus Mars Moon 



We thank the organizing committee for inviting us to write this article. J.P.G. also thanks K. Abe for assistance with figure preparation, M. Gilmore for discussions regarding Venus, and S. Itoh, N. Sakamoto and H. Yurimoto for discussions of water measurements using SIMS and for discussions on volatile delivery mechanisms to the Solar System. This work was supported by NASA-LASER (NNX14AQ76G) and NASA-EW (NNX17AE26G) to J.P.G., and by JSPS (16H04073, 15KK0153, 17H06459) to T.U.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James P. Greenwood
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shun-ichiro Karato
    • 2
  • Kathleen E. Vander Kaaden
    • 3
  • Kaveh Pahlevan
    • 4
  • Tomohiro Usui
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesWesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geology and GeophysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  4. 4.School of Earth & Space ExplorationArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  5. 5.Earth-Life Science InstituteTokyo Institute of TechnologyMeguroJapan

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