Space Science Reviews

, 214:41 | Cite as

Cosmic Ray Production in Supernovae

  • A. M. BykovEmail author
  • D. C. Ellison
  • A. Marcowith
  • S. M. Osipov
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Supernovae


We give a brief review of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs), emphasizing the production of CRs at different stages of supernova evolution by the first-order Fermi shock acceleration mechanism. We suggest that supernovae with trans-relativistic outflows, despite being rather rare, may accelerate CRs to energies above \(10^{18}\mbox{ eV}\) over the first year of their evolution. Supernovae in young compact clusters of massive stars, and interaction powered superluminous supernovae, may accelerate CRs well above the PeV regime. We discuss the acceleration of the bulk of the galactic CRs in isolated supernova remnants and re-acceleration of escaped CRs by the multiple shocks present in superbubbles produced by associations of OB stars. The effects of magnetic field amplification by CR driven instabilities, as well as superdiffusive CR transport, are discussed for nonthermal radiation produced by nonlinear shocks of all speeds including trans-relativistic ones.


Supernovae Cosmic rays Supernova remnants Interstellar medium Magnetic turbulence 



A.M.B., D.C.E. and A.M. thank the staff of ISSI for their generous hospitality and assistance. The authors thank the referees for the constructive comments. A.M. Bykov and S.M. Osipov were supported by the RSF grant 16-12-10225. Some of the modeling was performed at the “Tornado” subsystem of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University supercomputing center. A.M. Bykov thanks R.A. Chevalier and J.C. Raymond for discussions, R. Margutti for the Fig. 1, and M.A. Grekov for his support with computations.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Bykov
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • D. C. Ellison
    • 4
  • A. Marcowith
    • 5
  • S. M. Osipov
    • 1
  1. 1.Ioffe InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.St. Petersburg Polytechnic UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.International Space Science InstituteBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  5. 5.Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier CNRS/Universite de MontpellierMontpellierFrance

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