Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, 214:28 | Cite as

Shock Waves in Supernova Ejecta

  • J. C. RaymondEmail author
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Supernovae

Abstract

Astrophysical shock waves are a major mechanism for dissipating energy, and by heating and ionizing the gas they produce emission spectra that provide valuable diagnostics for the shock parameters, for the physics of collisionless shocks, and for the composition of the shocked material. Shocks in SN ejecta in which H and He have been burned to heavier elements behave differently than shocks in ordinary astrophysical gas because of their very large radiative cooling rates. In particular, extreme departures from thermal equilibrium among ions and electrons and from ionization equilibrium may arise. This paper discusses the consequences of the enhanced metal abundances for the structure and emission spectra of those shocks.

Keywords

Supernova Shock waves Supernova remnants 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by GO grant HST-GO-13436.01-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute and by the International Space Sciences Institute. It grew out of the ISSI meeting on Supernovae in October, 2016.

References

  1. A. Bemporad, R. Susino, G. Lapenta, Astrophys. J. 784, 102 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. D. Berdichevsky, J. Giess, G. Gloeckler, U. Marshall, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 2623 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. J. Bhalerao, S. park, D. Dewey, J.P. Hughes, K. Mori, J.-J. Lee, Astrophys. J. 800, 65 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. W.P. Blair, J.C. Raymond, J. Danziger, F. Mateucci, Astrophys. J. 338, 812 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. W.P. Blair, J.C. Raymond, K.S. Long, Astrophys. J. 423, 334 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. W.P. Blair, K.S. Long, J.C. Raymond, Astrophys. J. 468, 871 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. W.P. Blair et al., Astrophys. J. 537, 667 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. J.M. Blondin, D.C. Ellison, Astrophys. J. 560, 244 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. K.J. Borkowski, J.M. Shull, Astrophys. J. 348, 169 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. T. Brantseg, R.L. McEntaffer, L.M. Bozzetto, M. Filipovic, N. Grieves, Astrophys. J. 780, 50 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. S. Broersen, J. Vink, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 446, 3885 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. S. Broersen, J. Vink, M. Miceli, F. Bocchino, G. Maurin, A. Decourchelle, Astron. Astrophys. 552, 9 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. A.M. Bykov, Y.A. Uvarov, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 88, 465 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. A.M. Bykov, F.B.S. Paerels, V. Petrosian, Space Sci. Rev. 134, 141 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. P.J. Cargill, K. Papadopoulos, Astrophys. J. Lett. 329, 29 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. P. Chandra, V.V. Dwarkadas, A. Ray, S. Immler, D. Pooley, Astrophys. J. 699, 388 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. R.A. Chevalier, J.N. Imamura, Astrophys. J. 261, 543 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. R.A. Chevalier, J.C. Raymond, Astrophys. J. Lett. 225, L27 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. R.A. Chevalier, R.P. Kirshner, J.C. Raymond, Astrophys. J. 235, 186 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. A.C. Cummings et al., Astrophys. J. 831, 18 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. I. De Looze, M.J. Barlow, B.M. Swinyard, J. Rho, H.L. Gomez, M. Matsuura, R. Wesson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 465, 3309 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. g. Del Zanna, K.P. Dere, P. Young, E. Landi, H.E. Mason, Astron. Astrophys. 582, 56 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. T. DeLaney, N.E. Kassim, L. Rudnick, R.A. Perley, Astrophys. J. 785, 7 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. J.R. Dickel, W.J.M. van Breugel, R.G. Strom, Astron. J. 101, 2151 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. M.A. Dopita, L. Binette, I.R. Tuohy, Astrophys. J. 282, 142 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. L.OC. Drury, Nature 99, 329 (2001) Google Scholar
  27. K.A. Eriksen Ph.D. thesis, University Arizona, 2009 Google Scholar
  28. R.A. Fesen, C.L. Gerardy, K.M. McLin, A.J.S. Hamilton, Astrophys. J. 514, 195 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. R.A. Fesen et al., Astrophys. J. 645, 283 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. R. Fesen, G. Rudie, A. Hurford, A. Soto, Astrophys. J. 174, 379 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. R.A. Fesen, J.A. Zastrow, M.C. Hammell, J.M. Shull, D.W. Silvia, Astrophys. J. 736, 109 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. R.A. Fesen, P.A. Höflich, A.J.S. Hamilton, Astrophys. J. 804, 140 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. K.A. Flanagan et al., Astrophys. J. 605, 230 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. K. France et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 707, L27 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. T.J. Gaetz, R.J. Edgar, R.A. Chevalier, Astrophys. J. 329, 927 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. P. Ghavamian, J. Raymond, P. Hartigan, W.P. Blair, Astrophys. J. 535, 266 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. P. Ghavamian, J. Raymond, R.C. Smith, P. Hartigan, Astrophys. J. 547, 995 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. P. Ghavamian, P.F. Winkler, J.C. Raymond, K.S. Long, Astrophys. J. 572, 888 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. P. Ghavamian, J.M. Laming, C.E. Rakowski, Astrophys. J. Lett. 654, 69 (2007a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. P. Ghavamian, W.P. Blair, R. Sankrit, J.C. Raymond, J.P. Hughes, Astrophys. J. 664, 304 (2007b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. P. Ghavamian et al., Astrophys. J. 750, 39 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. P. Ghavamian, S.J. Schwartz, J. Mitchell, A. Masters, J.M. Laming, Space Sci. Rev. 47, 557 (2013) Google Scholar
  43. J. Giacalone, Space Sci. Rev. 176, 73 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. E.V. Gotthelf, B. Koralesky, L. Rudnick, T.W. Jones, U. Hwang, R. Petre, Astrophys. J. Lett. 522, L39 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. N. Grevesse, M. Asplund, A.J. Sauval, Space Sci. Rev. 130, 105 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. J. Grun, J. Stamper, C. Manka, R. Resnick, J. Crawford, B.H. Ripin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2738 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. S.F. Gull, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 171, 263 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. A.J.S. Hamilton, R.A. Fesen, Astrophys. J. 327, 178 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. A.J.S. Hamilton, R.A. Fesen, C.-C. Wu, D.M. Crenshaw, C.L. Sarazin, Astrophys. J. 481, 838 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. A.J.S. Hamilton, R.A. Fesen, W.P. Blair, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 381, 771 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. E.C. Hansen, A. Frank, P. Hartigan, S.V. lebedev, Astrophys. J. 837, 143 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. E.A. Helder, J. Vink, Astrophys. J. 686, 1094 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. E.A. Helder, J. Vink, C.G. Bassa, Astrophys. J. 737, 85 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. J.J. Hester, J.C. Raymond, W.P. Blair, Astrophys. J. 420, 721 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. J.J. Hester et al., Astrophys. J. 456, 225 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. L. Hovey, J.P. Hughes, K. Eriksen, Astrophys. J. 809, 119 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. J.P. Hughes, C.E. Rakowski, A. Decourchelle, Astrophys. J. Lett. 543, 61 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. A.J. Hull, J.D. Scudder, R.J. Fitzenreiter, K.W. Ogilvie, J.A. Newbury, C.T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res., Atmos. 105, 20957 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. U. Hwang, J.M. Laming, Astrophys. J. 746, 130 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. D.E. Innes, Astron. Astrophys. 256, 660 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. D.E. Innes, J.R. Giddings, S.A.E.G. Falle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 224, 179 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. K. Isensee et al., Astrophys. J. 725, 2059 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. H. Itoh, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 29, 813 (1977) ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. H. Itoh, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 30, 489 (1978) ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. H. Itoh, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 33, 1 (1981a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. H. Itoh, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 33, 521 (1981b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. H. Itoh, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 38, 717 (1986) ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. H. Itoh, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 40, 673 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. A. Jerkstrand, M. Ergon, S.J. Smartt et al., Astron. Astrophys. 573, A12 (2015) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. F. Kamitsukasa et al., Nature 66, 64 (2014) Google Scholar
  71. S. Katsuda, U. Hwang, R. Petre, S. Park, K. Mori, H. Tsunemi, Astrophys. J. 714, 1725 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. R.I. Klein, C.F. McKee, P. Colella, Astrophys. J. 420, 213 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. B.-C. Koo, Y.-H. Lee, D.-S. Moon, S.-C. Yoon, J.C. Raymond, Science 342, 1346 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. K.E. Korreck, J.C. Raymond, T.H. Zurbuchen, P. Ghavamian, Astrophys. J. 615, 280 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. K.E. Korreck, T.H. Zurbuchen, S.T. Lepri, J.M. Raines, Astrophys. J. 659, 773 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. D. Kosenko, J. Vink, S. Blinnikov, A. Rasmussen, Astron. Astrophys. 490, 223 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. D. Kosenko, S.I. Blinnikov, J. Vink, Astron. Astrophys. 532, A114 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yu.A. Kropotina, A.M. Bykov, M.Yu. Gustov, A.M. Krassilchtchikov, K.P. Levenfish, J. Tech. Phys. 60, 231 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yu.A. Kropotina, A.M. Bykov, A.M. Krassilchtchikov, K.P. Levenfish, J. Tech. Phys. 61, 517 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. J.W. Kruk, S.T. Durrance, G.A. Kriss, A.F. Davidson, W.P. Blair, B.R. Espey, D.S. Finley, Astrophys. J. Lett. 454, L1 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. J.M. Laming, J. Grun, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 125002 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. J.M. Laming, J.C. Raymond, B.M. McLaughlin, w.P. Blair, Astrophys. J. 472, 267 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. J.M. Laming, U. Hwang, P. Ghavamian, C. Rakowski, Astrophys. J. 790, 11 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. J.-J. Lee, B.-C. Koo, J.C. Raymond, P. Ghavamian, T.-S. Pyo, A. Tajitsu, M. Hayashi, Astrophys. J. Lett. 659, L133 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. J.-J. Lee, J.C. Raymond, S. Park, W.P. Blair, P. Ghavamian, P.F. Winkler, K. Korreck, Astrophys. J. Lett. 715, 146 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. A.M. Loll, S.J. Desch, P.A. Scowen, J.P. Foy, Astrophys. J. 765, 152 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. K.S. Long et al., Astrophys. J. 586, 1162 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. S. Ma et al., Astrophys. J. 738, 160 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. M.-M. MacLow, C.F. McKee, R.I. Klein, J.M. Stone, M. Norman, Astrophys. J. 433, 757 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. R. McCray, R.F. Stein, M. Kafatos, Astrophys. J. 196, 565 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. A. Medina, J.C. Raymond, R.J. Edgar, N. Caldwell, R.A. Fesen, D. Milisavljevic, Astrophys. J. 791, 30 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. E.R. Micelotta et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2017, submitted) Google Scholar
  93. D. Milisavljevic, R.A. Fesen, Astrophys. J. 677, 306 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. D. Milisavljevic, R.A. Fesen, Science 347, 526 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. D. Milisavljevic, R.A. Fesen, R.A. Chevalier, R.P. Kirshner, P. Challis, M. Turatto, Astrophys. J. 751, 25 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. D. Milisavljevic et al., Astrophys. J. 815, 120 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. J.A. Morse et al., Astron. J. 112, 509 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. J.A. Morse, N. Smith, W.P. Blair, R.P. Kirshner, P.F. Winkler, J.P. Hughes, Astrophys. J. 644, 188 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. F.S. Mozer, D. Sundkvist, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 5413 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. T.K. Nymark, C. Fransson, Astron. Astrophys. 494, 179 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Y. Ohira, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 440, 514 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Y. Ohira, F. Takahara, Astrophys. J. Lett. 661, L171 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. D.J. Patnaude, R.A. Fesen, Astrophys. J. 587, 221 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. D.J. Patnaude, R.A. Fesen, Astrophys. J. 789, 138 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. P. Plucinsky et al., Astron. Astrophys. 597, 83 (2017) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. C.E. Rakowski, P. Ghavamian, J.P. Hughes, Astrophys. J. 590, 846 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. C.E. Rakowski, J.M. Laming, P. Ghavamian, Astrophys. J. 684, 348 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. J.C. Raymond, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 39, 1 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. J.C. Raymond, W.P. Blair, K.S. Long, Astrophys. J. Lett. 454, L31 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. J.C. Raymond, P.A. Isenberg, J.M. Laming, Astrophys. J. 682, 408 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. J.C. Raymond, P.F. Winkler, W.P. Blair, J.-J. Lee, S. Park, Astrophys. J. 712, 901 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. J.C. Raymond, R.J. Edgar, P. Ghavamian, W.P. Blair, Astrophys. J. 805, 152 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. J. Rho, W.T. reach, A. Tappe, U. Hwang, J.D. Slavin, T. Kozasa, L. Dunne, Astrophys. J. 700, 579 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. M.A. Riquelme, A. Spitkovsky, Astrophys. J. 733(1), 63 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/733/1/63 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. G. Salvesen, J.C. Raymond, R.J. Edgar, Astrophys. J. 702, 327 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. C. Sandin, P. Lundqvist, N. Lundqvist, C.-I. Björnsson, G. Olofsson, Yu.A. shibanov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 2854 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. R. Sankrit, J.J. Hester, Astrophys. J. 491, 796 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. R. Sankrit et al., Astrophys. J. 504, 344 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. A. Sarangi et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2017, submitted) Google Scholar
  120. M. Sasaki, T.J. Gaetz, W.P. Blair, R.J. Edgar, J.A. Morse, P.P. Plucinsky, R.K. Smith, Astrophys. J. 642, 260 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. A. Schenck, S. Park, S. Post, Astrophys. J. 151, 161 (2016) ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. K.M. Schure, A. Achterberg, R. Keppens, J. Vink, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 406, 2633 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. S.J. Schwartz, J. Geophys. Res. 119, 1507 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. S.J. Schwartz, M.F. Thomsen, S.J. Bame, J. Stansberry, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 12923 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. N.I. Serafimovich, P. Lundqvist, A. Shibanov Yu, J. Sollerman, Adv. Space Res. 35, 1106 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. N. Shimada, M. Hoshino, Astrophys. J. Lett. 543, L71 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. A.R. Sibley, A.M. Katz, T.J. Satterfield, S.J. Vanderveer, G.M. MacAlpine, Astron. J. 152, 93 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. R.C. Smith Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1991 Google Scholar
  129. R.K. Smith, J.P. Hughes, Astrophys. J. 718, 583 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. R.C. Smith, J.C. Raymond, J.M. Laming, Astrophys. J. 420, 286 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. J. Sollerman, P. Ghavamian, P. Lundqvist, R.C. Smith, Astron. Astrophys. 407, 249 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. F.R. Stephenson, D.A. Green, in Historical Supernovae and Their Remnants (Clarendon, Oxford, 2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. R.S. Sutherland, M.A. Dopita, Astrophys. J. 439, 381 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. F. Suzuki-Vidal et al., Astrophys. J. 815, 96 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. A.H. Szentgyorgyi, J.C. Raymond, J.J. Hester, S. Curiel, Astrophys. J. 529, 279 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. A. Tappe, J. Rho, C. Boersma, E.R. Micelotta, Astrophys. J. 754, 132 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. I. Telezhinsky, V.V. Dwarkadas, M. Pohl, Astropart. Phys. 35, 300 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. I. Telezhinsky, V.V. Dwarkadas, M. Pohl, Astron. Astrophys. 552, 102 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. T. Temim et al., Astron. J. 132, 1610 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. T. Temim, P. Slane, S.P. Reynolds, J.C. Raymond, K.J. Borkowski, Astrophys. J. 710, 309 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. O. Vancura, W.P. Blair, K.S. Long, J.C. Raymond, Astrophys. J. 394, 158 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. J. Vink, J.M. Laming, F.M. Gu, A. Rasmussen, J. Kaastra, Astrophys. J. Lett. 587, L31 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. J. Vink, S. Broersen, A. Bykov, S. Gabici, Astron. Astrophys. 579, 13 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. E.T. Vishniac, Astrophys. J. 274, 152 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. F.P.A. Vogt, I. Seitenzahl, M.A. Dopita, A.J. Ruiter, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 129, 058012 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. L.L. Williams, G.P. Zank, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 19229 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. B.J. Williams et al., Astrophys. J. 687, 1054 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. P.F. Winkler, R.P. Kirshner, Astrophys. J. 299, 981 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. P.F. Winkler, K. Twelker, C.N. Reith, K.S. Long, Astrophys. J. 692, 1489 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. H. Yamaguchi, K. Eriksen, C. Badenes, J.O. Hughes, N. Brickhouse, A. Foster, D.J. Patnaude, R. Petre, P.O. Slane, R.K. Smith, Astrophys. J. 780, 136 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. G. Zimbardo, Planet. Space Sci. 59, 468 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. V.N. Zirakashvili, F.A. Aharonian, Astrophys. J. 708, 965 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. V.N. Zirakashvili, F.A. Aharonian, R. Yang, E. Oña-Wilhelmi, R.J. Tuffs, Astrophys. J. 785, 130 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations