Space Science Reviews

, Volume 212, Issue 1–2, pp 835–875 | Cite as

Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

  • O. GrassetEmail author
  • J. Castillo-Rogez
  • T. Guillot
  • L. N. Fletcher
  • F. Tosi
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The Delivery of Water to Protoplanets, Planets and Satellites


Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems.

This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects, are summarized, and complete this overview of the nature and distribution of ice-rich material in the outer solar system.


Water and volatiles Giant and Intermediate planets Giant moons and small bodies Chemistry and Physics 


  1. R.K. Achterberg, B.J. Conrath, P.J. Gierasch, Icarus 182, 169–180 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Y. Alibert, C. Mordasini, W. Benz, C. Winisdoerffer, Astron. Astrophys. 434, 343–353 (2005). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20042032 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. S.K. Atreya, P.R. Mahaffy, H.B. Niemann, M.H. Wong, T.C. Owen, Planet. Space Sci. 51, 105–112 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. S.K. Atreya, R.D. Lorenz, J.H. Waite, in Titan from Cassini-Huygens (2009), pp. 177–199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon, Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006) Google Scholar
  6. K.H. Baines, R.W. Carlson, L.W. Kamp, Icarus 159, 74 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D. Banfield, P. Gierasch, M. Bell, E. Ustinov, A. Ingersoll, A. Vasavada, R. West, M. Belton, Icarus 135(1), 230–250 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. C.A. Barth et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2147–2150 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. M.A. Barucci, D.P. Cruikshank, E. Dotto, F. Merlin, F. Poulet, C. Dalle Ore, S. Fornasier, C. de Bergh, Astron. Astrophys. 439, L1–L4 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. M.A. Barucci, F. Merlin, E. Dotto, A. Doressoundiram, C. de Bergh, Observations of the TNO 55638 (2002 \(\mbox{VE}_{95}\)) and analysis of the population’s spectral properties. Astron. Astrophys. 455, 725–730 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. M.A. Barucci, F. Merlin, A. Guilbert, C. de Bergh, A. Alvarez-Candal, O. Hainaut, A. Doressoundiram, C. Dumas, T. Owen, A. Coradini, Astron. Astrophys. 479, L13–L16 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. M.A. Barucci, A. Alvarez-Candal, F. Merlin, I.N. Belskaya, C. de Bergh, D. Perna, F. DeMeo, S. Fornasier, Icarus 214, 297–307 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. K. Batygin, M.E. Brown, Astron. J. 151(2), 22 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. M. Beuthe, A. Rivoldini, A. Trinh, Geophys. Res. Lett. (2016). doi: 10.1002/2016GL070650 Google Scholar
  15. S.E. Billings, S.A. Kattenhorn, Icarus 177, 397–412 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. G.L. Bjoraker, M.H. Wong, I. de Pater, M. Adamkovics, Astrophys. J. 810, 122 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. M.T. Bland, C.A. Raymond, R.R. Fu, P. Schenk, T. Kneissl, J.H. Pasckert, H. Hiesinger, F. Preusker, R. Park, S. Marchi, S. King, J.C. Castillo-Rogez, C.T. Russell, Nat. Geosci. 10, 338–343 (2017). doi: 10.1038/ngeo2936 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. A.C. Boley, T. Hayfield, L. Mayer, R.H. Durisen, Icarus 207, 509–516 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.01.015 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. T. Bowling, F.J. Ciesla, S. Marchi, B.C. Johnson, T.M. Davison, J.C. Castillo-Rogez, M.C. De Sanctis, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2016), p. 47 Google Scholar
  20. P.W. Bridgman, J. Chem. Phys. 5, 964 (1937) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. F.H. Briggs, P.D. Sackett, Icarus 80, 77–103 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. A.L. Broadfoot et al., Science 246, 1459–1466 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. M.E. Brown, Icarus 151(2), 190–195 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. M.E. Brown, Astrophys. J. Lett. 778(2), L34 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. R.H. Brown, D.P. Cruikshank, Icarus 55, 83–92 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. M.E. Brown, R.E. Hill, Nature 380(6571), 229–231 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. R.H. Brown et al., Space Sci. Rev. 115(1–4), 111–168 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. M.E. Brown, E.L. Schaller, W.C. Fraser et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 739, L60 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. M.E. Brown, E.L. Schaller, W.C. Fraser, Astrophys. J. 143, 146 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. R. Brunetto, M.A. Barucci, E. Dotto, G. Strazzulla, Ion irradiation of frozen methanol, methane, and benzene: linking to the colors of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects. Astrophys. J. 644, 646 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. B.J. Buratti et al., Astrophys. J. 622(2), L149–L152 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. V.V. Busarev, V.A. Dorofeeva, A.B. Makalkin, Earth Moon Planets 92, 345–357 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O. Cadek, G. Tobie, T. Van Hoolst, M. Masse, G. Choblet, L. Lefevre, G. Mitri, R.-M. Baland, M. Behounkova, O. Bourgeois, A. Trinh, Geophys. Res. Lett. (2016). doi: 10.1002/2016GL068634 Google Scholar
  34. W.M. Calvin, R.N. Clark, Icarus 89, 305–317 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. W.M. Calvin, R.N. Clark, Icarus 104(1), 69–78 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. R.W. Carlson, Science 283(5403), 820 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. R.W. Carlson et al., Space Sci. Rev. 60(1–4), 457–502 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. R.W. Carlson et al., Science 286(5437), 97–99 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. B. Carry, D. Hestroffer, F.E. DeMeo, A. Thirouin, J. Berthier, P. Lacerda, B. Sicardy, A. Doressoundiram, C. Dumas, D. Farrelly, T.G. Muller, Astron. Astrophys. 534, A115 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. P.M. Cassen, S.J. Peale, R.T. Reynolds, in Satellites of Jupiter (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1982), pp. 93–128 (A83-16226 04-91) Google Scholar
  41. J.C. Castillo-Rogez et al. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. (2017, submitted) Google Scholar
  42. J.C. Castillo-Rogez, T.B. McCord, Icarus 205, 443–459 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.008 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. T. Cavalié, R. Moreno, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, O. Venot, G.S. Orton, C. Jarchow, T. Encrenaz, F. Selsis, F. Hersant, L.N. Fletcher, Astron. Astrophys. 562, A33 (2014). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322297c ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. G.M. Chaban et al., Icarus 187(2), 592–599 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. G. Choblet, G. Tobie, AGU abstract P23D-06. AGU Fall Meeting (2015) Google Scholar
  46. M. Choukroun, O. Grasset, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144502 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. M. Ciarniello et al., Icarus 214(2), 541–555 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. R.N. Clark, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3087–3096 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. R.N. Clark et al., Nature 435(7038), 66–69 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. R.N. Clark et al., Icarus 193(2), 372–386 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. R.N. Clark et al., Icarus 218(2), 831–860 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. J.-Ph. Combe, T.B. McCord, F. Tosi, E. Ammannito, F. Carrozzo, M.-C. De Sanctis A. Raponi, S. Byrne, M.E. Landis, K. Hughson, C. Raymond, C. Russell, Science 353(6303), id.aaf3010 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. J.-Ph. Combe, A. Raponi, F. Tosi, M.C. De Sanctis, F.G. Carrozzo, F. Zambon, E. Ammannito, K.H.G. Hughson, A. Nathues, M. Hoffmann, T. Platz, G. Thangjam, N. Schorghofer, S. Schröder, S. Byrne, M.E. Landis, O. Ruesch, T.B. McCord, K.E. Johnson, S.M. Singh, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Exposed \(\mbox{H}_{2}\)O-rich areas detected on Ceres with the Dawn Visible and InfraRed mapping spectrometer. Icarus (2017, submitted) Google Scholar
  54. B.J. Conrath, P.J. Gierasch, S.S. Leroy, Icarus 83, 255–281 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. G.J. Consolmagno, J.S. Lewis, Icarus 34, 280–293 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. J.C. Cook, S.J. Desch, T.L. Roush, C.A. Trujillo, T.R. Geballe, Astrophys. J. 663, 1406 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. J.F. Cooper, E.R. Christian, J.D. Richardson, C. Wang, in The First Decadal Review of the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (2004), pp. 261–277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. A. Coradini et al., Identification of spectral units on Phoebe. Icarus 193(1), 233–251 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. D.P. Cruikshank et al., Ices on the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, in Solar System Ices, ed. by B. Schmitt, C. deBergh, M. Festou (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1998a), pp. 579–606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. D.P. Cruikshank, T.L. Roush, T.C. Owen, E. Quirico, C. deBergh, The surface compositions of Triton, Pluto, and Charon, in Solar System Ices, ed. by B. Schmitt, C. deBergh, M. Festou (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1998b), pp. 655–684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. D.P. Cruikshank et al., Surface composition of Hyperion. Nature 448(7149), 54–56 (2000a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. D.P. Cruikshank et al., Water ice on Triton. Icarus 147(1), 309–316 (2000b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. D.P. Cruikshank et al., Hydrocarbons on Saturn’s satellites Iapetus and Phoebe. Icarus 193(2), 334–343 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. D.P. Cruikshank et al., Carbon dioxide on the satellites of Saturn: results from the Cassini VIMS investigation and revisions to the VIMS wavelength scale. Icarus 206(2), 561–572 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. D.P. Cruikshank, W.M. Grundy, F.E. DeMeo, M.W. Buie, R.P. Binzel, D.E. Jennings, C.B. Olkin, J.W. Parker, D.C. Reuter, J.R. Spencer, S.A. Stern, L.A. Young, H.A. Weaver, The surface compositions of Pluto and Charon. Icarus 246, 82–92 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. D.P. Cruiskshank, C.M. Dalle Ore, Earth Moon Planets 92, 315–330 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. D.P. Cruiskshank, T.L. Roush, M.J. Bartholomew, T.R. Geballe, Y.J. Pendleton, S.M. White, J.F. Bell III, J.K. Davies, T.C. Owen, C. de Bergh, D.J. Tholen, Icarus 135, 389–407 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. N.J. Cunningham, J.R. Spencer, P.D. Feldman, D.F. Strobel, K. France, S.N. Osterman, Icarus 254, 178–189 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. J.N. Cuzzi, P.R. Estrada, Icarus 132(1), 1–35 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. J.N. Cuzzi et al., An evolving view of Saturn’s dynamic rings. Science 327(5972), 1470–1475 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. C.M. Dalle Ore, D.P. Cruikshank, R.M.E. Mastrapa, E. Lewis, O.L. White, Impact craters: an ice study on Rhea. Icarus 261, 80–90 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. J.B. Dalton, Astrobiology 3(4), 771–784 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. J.B. Dalton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(21), L21205 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. J.B. Dalton et al., Spectral comparison of heavily hydrated salts with disrupted terrains on Europa. Icarus 177(2), 472–490 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. J.B. Dalton et al., Europa’s icy bright plains and dark linea: exogenic and endogenic contributions to composition and surface properties. J. Geophys. Res. 117(E3), E03003 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. J.B. Dalton et al., Exogenic controls on sulfuric acid hydrate production at the surface of Europa. Planet. Space Sci. 77, 45–63 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. S. De Angelis et al., Temperature-dependent VNIR spectroscopy of hydrated Mg-sulfates. Icarus 281, 444–458 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. T. de Graauw, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Bezard, P. Drossart, T. Encrenaz, D.A. Beintema, M. Griffin, A. Heras, M. Kessler, K. Leech, E. Lellouch, P. Morris, P.R. Roelfsema, M. Roos-Serote, A. Salama, B. Vandenbussche, E.A. Valentijn, G.R. Davis, D.A. Naylor, Astron. Astrophys. 321, L13–L16 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. I. de Pater, S.T. Massie, Icarus 62, 143–171 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. I. de Pater, P.N. Romani, S.K. Atreya, Icarus 91, 220–233 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. I. de Pater, L.A. Sromovsky, P.M. Fry, H.B. Hammel, C. Baranec, K.M. Sayanagi, Icarus 252, 121–128 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. I. de Pater, R.J. Sault, B. Butler, D. DeBoer, M.H. Wong, Science 352, 1198–1201 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. M.C. De Sanctis et al., Ammoniated phyllosilicates with a likely outer Solar System origin on (1) Ceres. Nature 528, 241–244 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. M.C. De Sanctis, A. Raponi, E. Ammannito, M. Ciarniello, M.J. Toplis, H.Y. McSween, J.C. Castillo-Rogez, B.L. Ehlmann, F.G. Carrozzo, S. Marchi, F. Tosi, F. Zambon, F. Capaccioni, M.T. Capria, S. Fonte, M. Formisano, A. Frigeri, M. Giardino, A. Longobardo, G. Magni, E. Palomba, L.A. McFadden, C.M. Pieters, R. Jaumann, P. Schenk, R. Mugnuolo, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Nature 536, 54–57.12 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. A.D. Del Genio, R.K. Achterberg, K.H. Baines, F.M. Flasar, P.L. Read, A. Sanchez-Lavega, A.P. Showman, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, vol. 6 (Springer, Berlin, 2009), pp. 113–159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. A. Delsanti, F. Merlin, A. Guilbert-Lepoutre, J. Bauer, B. Yang, K.J. Meech, Astron. Astrophys. 520, A40 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. F. DeMeo, M.A. Barucci, A. Alvarez-Candal, C. de Bergh, S. Fornasier, F. Merlin, D. Perna, I. Belskaya, Icy bodies of the solar system, in Proceedings of the 263th of the International Astronomical Union, ed. by J.A. Fernandez, D. Lazzaro, D. Prialnik, R. Schulz (2008), pp. 186–191 Google Scholar
  88. S.J. Desch, J.C. Cook, T.C. Doggett, S.B. Porter, Icarus 202, 694–714 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. M.K. Dougherty et al., Identification of a dynamic atmosphere at Enceladus with the Cassini magnetometer. Science 311(5766), 1406–1409 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. M.K. Dougherty, L.W. Esposito, S.M. Krimigis, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. by M.K. Dougherty, L.W. Esposito, S.M. Krimigis (Springer, Berlin, 2009). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9217-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. S. Douté et al., Mapping \(\mbox{SO}_{2}\) frost on Io by the modeling of NIMS hyperspectral images. Icarus 149(1), 107–132 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. S. Douté et al., Geology and activity around volcanoes on Io from the analysis of NIMS spectral images. Icarus 169(1), 175–196 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Drossart, H. Feuchtgruber, G.S. Orton, S.K. Atreya, Astron. Astrophys. 413, L5–L9 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. P.R. Estrada, I. Mosqueira, J.J. Lissauer, G. D’Angelo, D.P. Cruikshank, Formation of Jupiter and conditions for accretion of the Galilean satellites, in Europa, ed. by R.T. Pappalardo (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2009), pp. 27–58 Google Scholar
  95. H. Feuchtgruber, E. Lellouch, T. de Graauw, B. Bezard, T. Encrenaz, M. Griffin, Nature 389, 159–162 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. H. Feuchtgruber, E. Lellouch, G. Orton, T. de Graauw, B. Vandenbussche, B. Swinyard, R. Moreno, C. Jarchow, F. Billebaud, T. Cavalie, S. Sidher, P. Hartogh, Astron. Astrophys. 551, A126 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. G. Filacchione et al., Saturn’s icy satellites investigated by Cassini–VIMS: I. Full-disk properties: 350–5100 nm reflectance spectra and phase curves. Icarus 186(1), 259–290 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. G. Filacchione et al., Saturn’s icy satellites investigated by Cassini–VIMS: II. Results at the end of nominal mission. Icarus 206(2), 507–523 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. G. Filacchione et al., Saturn’s icy satellites and rings investigated by Cassini–VIMS: III—radial compositional variability. Icarus 220(2), 1064–1096 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. G. Filacchione et al., The radial distribution of water ice and chromophores across Saturn’s system. Astrophys. J. 766(2), 76 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. U. Fink, H.P. Larson, Icarus 24, 411–420 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. G. Fischer, W.S. Kurth, D.A. Gurnett, P. Zarka, U.A. Dyudina, A.P. Ingersoll, S.P. Ewald, C.C. Porco, A. Wesley, C. Go, M. Delcroix, Nature 475, 75–77 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. L.N. Fletcher, G.S. Orton, N.A. Teanby, P.G.J. Irwin, G.L. Bjoraker, Icarus 199, 351–367 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. L.N. Fletcher, P. Drossart, M. Burgdorf, G.S. Orton, T. Encrenaz, Astron. Astrophys. 514, A17+ (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. L.N. Fletcher, K.H. Baines, T.W. Momary, A.P. Showman, P.G.J. Irwin, G.S. Orton, M. Roos-Serote, C. Merlet, Icarus 214, 510–533 (2011a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. L.N. Fletcher, B.E. Hesman, P.G.J. Irwin, K.H. Baines, T.W. Momary, A. Sanchez-Lavega, F.M. Flasar, P.L. Read, G.S. Orton, A. Simon-Miller, R. Hueso, G.L. Bjoraker, A. Mamoutkine, T. del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, J.M. Gomez, B. Buratti, R.N. Clark, P.D. Nicholson, C. Sotin, Science 332, 1413–1417 (2011b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. L.N. Fletcher, B.E. Hesman, R.K. Achterberg, P.G.J. Irwin, G. Bjoraker, N. Gorius, J. Hurley, J. Sinclair, G.S. Orton, J. Legarreta, E. García-Melendo, A. Sańchez-Lavega, P.L. Read, A.A. Simon-Miller, F.M. Flasar, Icarus 221, 560–586 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. L.N. Fletcher, T.K. Greathouse, G.S. Orton, P.G.J. Irwin, O. Mousis, J.A. Sin- clair, R.S. Giles, Icarus 238, 170–190 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. S. Fornasier, M.A. Barucci, C. de Bergh, A. Alvarez-Candal, F. DeMeo, F. Merlin, D. Perna, A. Guilbert, A. Delsanti, E. Dotto, A. Doressoundiram, Astron. Astrophys. 508, 457–465 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. A.D. Fortes, M. Choukroun, Space Sci. Rev. 153, 185–218 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9633-3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. T. Fouchet, E. Lellouch, B. Bezard, T. Encrenaz, P. Drossart, H. Feuchtgruber, T. de Graauw, Icarus 143, 223–243 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. T. Fouchet, P.G.J. Irwin, P. Parrish, S.B. Calcutt, F.W. Taylor, C.A. Nixon, T. Owen, Icarus 172, 50–58 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. A.J. Friedson, D.J. Stevenson, Icarus 56(1), 1–14 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. R. Fu, E. Ermakov, S. Marchi, J.C. Castillo-Rogez, C.A. Raymond, B.H. Hager, M.T. Zuber, S.D. King, M.T. Bland, M.C. De Sanctis, F. Preusker, R.S. Park, C.T. Russell, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (2017, submitted) Google Scholar
  115. P.J. Gierasch, A.P. Ingersoll, D. Banfield, S.P. Ewald, P. Helfenstein, A. Simon- Miller, A. Vasavada, H.H. Breneman, D.A. Senske (Galileo Imaging Team), Nature 403, 628–630 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. B. Giese, J. Oberst, T. Roatsch, G. Neukum, J.W. Head, R.T. Pappalardo, Icarus 135, 303–316 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. R.S. Giles, L.N. Fletcher, P.G.J. Irwin, Icarus 257, 457–470 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. O. Grasset, E.J. Bunce, A. Coustenis, M.K. Dougherty, C. Erd, H. Hussmann, R. Jaumann, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, Astrobiology 13(10), 991–1004 (2013). doi: 10.1089/ast.2013.1013 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. K.R. Grazier, J.C. Castillo-Rogez, P.W. Sharp, Icarus 232, 13–21 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. R. Greeley, C.E. Chyba, J.W. Head, T.B. McCord, W. McKinnon, R.T. Pappalardo, P.H. Figueredo, Geology of Europa, in Jupiter. The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. by F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon. Cambridge Planetary Science, vol. 1 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), pp. 329–362. ISBN 0-521-81808-7 Google Scholar
  121. C.A. Griffith, J.L. Mitchell, P. Lavvas, G. Tobie, Titan’s evolving climate, in Comparative Climatology of the Terrestrial Planets, ed. by S. Mackwell, M. Bullock, J. Harder (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2013) Google Scholar
  122. W.M. Grundy, Icarus 184(2), 543–555 (2006) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. W.M. Grundy, B. Schmitt, The temperature-dependent near-infrared absorption spectrum of hexagonal \(\mbox{H}_{2}\mbox{O}\) ice. J. Geophys. Res. 103(E11), 25809–25822 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. W.M. Grundy, R.P. Binzel, B.J. Buratti, J.C. Cook, D.P. Cruikshank, C.M. Dalle Ore, A.M. Earle, K. Ennico, C.J.A. Howett, A.W. Lunsford, C.B. Olkin, A.H. Parker, S. Philippe, S. Protopapa, E. Quirico, D.C. Reuter, B. Schmitt, K.N. Singer, A.J. Verbiscer, R.A. Beyer, M.W. Buie, A.F. Cheng, D.E. Jennings, I.R. Linscott, J.W. Parker, P.M. Schenk, J.R. Spencer, J.A. Stansberry, S.A. Stern, H.B. Throop, C.C.C. Tsang, H.A. Weaver, G.E. Weigle, L.A. Young, Science 351, id.aad9189 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. T. Guillot, Science 269, 1697–1699 (1995). doi: 10.1126/science.7569896 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. T. Guillot, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 33, 493–530 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. T. Guillot, D. Gautier, Giant planets, in Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 10, ed. by G. Schubert 2nd edn. (Elsevier, Oxford, 2015), pp. 529–557 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. T. Guillot, R. Hueso, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, L47–L51 (2006). doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2006.00137.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. T. Guillot, D.J. Stevenson, W.B. Hubbard, D. Saumon, in Jupiter. The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. by F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon (2004), pp. 35–57 Google Scholar
  130. D.T. Hall, D.F. Strobel, P.D. Feldman, M.A. McGrath, H.A. Weaver, Nature 373(6516), 677–679 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. D.T. Hall, P.D. Feldman, M.A. McGrath, D.F. Strobel, Astrophys. J. 499(1), 475–481 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. G.B. Hansen, T.B. McCord, in 31st Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13–17, 2000, Houston, TX (2000a), abstract no. 1630 Google Scholar
  133. G.B. Hansen, T.B. McCord, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1068 (2000b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. G.B. Hansen, T.B. McCord, J. Geophys. Res. 109(E1), E01012 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. G.B. Hansen, T.B. McCord, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L01202 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. G.B. Hansen, T.B. McCord, AGU Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #P51E-1163 (2009) Google Scholar
  137. P. Hartogh, E. Lellouch, R. Moreno, D. Bockelee-Morvan, N. Biver, T. Cassidy, M. Rengel, C. Jarchow, T. Cavalie, J. Crovisier, F.P. Helmich, M. Kidger, Astron. Astrophys. 532, L2+ (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. M.M. Hedman et al., Icarus 223(1), 105–130 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. R. Helled, T. Guillot, Astrophys. J. 767, 113 (2013). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/113 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. R. Helled, J.D. Anderson, M. Podolak, G. Schubert, Astrophys. J. 726, 15 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/726/1/15 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. A.R. Hendrix et al., Icarus 135(1), 79–94 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. A.R. Hendrix et al., J. Geophys. Res. 104(E6), 14169–14178 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. A.R. Hendrix et al., Europa’s disk-resolved ultraviolet spectra: relationships with plasma flux and surface terrains. Icarus 212(2), 736–743 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. B.E. Hesman, G.R. Davis, H.E. Matthews, G.S. Orton, Icarus 186, 342–353 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. C.A. Hibbitts et al., Composition and distribution of nonice and trace materials on Ganymede as derived from Galileo observations, abstract n. 632. EPSC (2009) Google Scholar
  146. C.A. Hibbitts et al., Distributions of \(\mbox{CO}_{2}\) and \(\mbox{SO}_{2}\) on the surface of Callisto. J. Geophys. Res. 105(E9), 22541–22558 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. C.A. Hibbitts et al., \(\mbox{CO}_{2}\)-rich impact craters on Callisto. J. Geophys. Res. 107(E10), 5084–5100 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. C.A. Hibbitts et al., Carbon dioxide on Ganymede. J. Geophys. Res. 108(E5), 5036 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. M.D. Hofstadter, B.J. Butler, Icarus 165, 168–180 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. M.D. Hofstadter, D.O. Muhleman, Icarus 81, 396–412 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. C.W. Hord et al., Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment. Space Sci. Rev. 60(1–4), 503–530 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. S.M. Hörst, V. Vuitton, R.V. Yelle, J. Geophys. Res. 113(E10), E10006 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. W.-B. Hubbard, B. Militzer, Astrophys. J. 820, 80 (2016). doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/80 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. H. Hussmann, F. Sohl, T. Spohn, Icarus 185, 258–273 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. H. Hussmann, G. Choblet, V. Lainey et al., Space Sci. Rev. 153, 317–334 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. H. Hussmann, C. Sotin, J. Lunine, in Treatise of Geophysics 2nd edn. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2015), pp. 605–635. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53802-4.00178-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. L. Iess, R.A. Jacobson, M. Ducci, D.J. Stevenson, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Racioppa, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, Science 337(6093), 457–459 (2012). doi: 10.1126/science.1219631 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. A. Ingersoll, A.R. Vasavada (Galileo Imaging Team), Nature 403, 630–632 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. A.P. Ingersoll, T.E. Dowling, P.J. Gierasch, G.S. Orton, P.L. Read, A. Sanchez-Lavega, A.P. Showman, A.A. Simon-Miller, A.R. Vasavada, in Jupiter. The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (2004), pp. 105–128 Google Scholar
  160. P. Irwin, N.A. Teanby, G.R. Davis, Icarus 203, 287–302 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. P.G.J. Irwin, E. Lellouch, C. de Bergh, R. Courtin, B. Bezard, L.N. Fletcher, G.S. Orton, N.A. Teanby, S.B. Calcutt, D. Tice, J. Hurley, G.R. Davis, Icarus 227, 37–48 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. M.A. Janssen, A.P. Ingersoll, M.D. Allison, S. Gulkis, A.L. Laraia, K.H. Baines, S.G. Edgington, Y.Z. Anderson, K. Kelleher, F.A. Oyafuso, Icarus 226, 522–535 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. T.V. Johnson, J.I. Lunine, Saturn’s moon Phoebe as a captured body from the outer solar system. Nature 435, 69–71 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. R.E. Johnson et al., Astron. Astrophys. 123(2), 343–346 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. J.S. Kargel, S.K. Croft, J.I. Lunine, J.S. Lewis, Icarus 89, 93–112 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. E. Karkoschka, M.G. Tomasko, Icarus 211, 780–797 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. S. Kattenhorn, L.M. Prockter, Nat. Geosci. 7, 762–767 (2014). doi: 10.1038/ngeo2245 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. K.K. Khurana et al., Icarus 191(1), 193–202 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. T.V.V. King, R.N. Clark, W.M. Calvin, D.M. Sherman, R.H. Brown, Science 255, 1551–1553 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. R.L. Kirk, D.J. Stevenson, Icarus 69, 91–134 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. M.G. Kivelson, Adv. Space Res. 33(11), 2061–2077 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. M.G. Kivelson, K.K. Khurana, M. Volwerk, Icarus 157(2), 507–522 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. M.G. Kivelson, K.K. Khurana, M. Volwerk, in Europa, ed. by R.T. Pappalardo, W.B. McKinnon, K.K. Khurana (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2009), pp. 545–570 Google Scholar
  174. O.L. Kuskov, V.A. Kronrod, Sol. Syst. Res. 39, 283 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s11208-005-0043-0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. M. Lambrechts, A. Johansen, Astron. Astrophys. 544, A32 (2012). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219127 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. J. Leconte, G. Chabrier, Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 540, A20 (2012). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117595 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. J. Leconte, F. Selsis, F. Hersant, T. Guillot, Astron. Astrophys. (2017). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629140 Google Scholar
  178. J. Leliwa-Kopystynski, M. Satorre, C. Santonja, Acta Geophys. 61, 1304–1321 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. E. Lellouch, B. Bezard, T. Fouchet, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Encrenaz, T. de Graauw, Astron. Astrophys. 370, 610–622 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. E. Lellouch, B. Bezard, J.I. Moses, G.R. Davis, P. Drossart, H. Feuchtgruber, E.A. Bergin, R. Moreno, T. Encrenaz, Icarus 159, 112–131 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, H. Feuchtgruber, B. Vandenbussche, T. de Graauw, R. Moreno, C. Jarchow, T. Cavalié, G. Orton, M. Banaszkiewicz, M.I. Blecka, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, T. Encrenaz, T. Fulton, M. Küppers, L.M. Lara, D.C. Lis, A.S. Medvedev, M. Rengel, H. Sagawa, B. Swinyard, S. Szutowicz, F. Bensch, E. Bergin, F. Billebaud, N. Biver, G.A. Blake, J.A.D.L. Blommaert, J. Cernicharo, R. Courtin, G.R. Davis, L. Decin, P. Encrenaz, A. Gonzalez, E. Jehin, M. Kidger, D. Naylor, G. Portyankina, R. Schieder, S. Sidher, N. Thomas, M. de Val-Borro, E. Verdugo, C. Waelkens, H. Walker, H. Aarts, C. Comito, J.H. Kawamura, A. Maestrini, T. Peacocke, R. Teipen, T. Tils, K. Wildeman, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L152 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. H.F. Levison, K.A. Kretke, M.J. Duncan, Nature 524, 322–324 (2015). doi: 10.1038/nature14675 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. J.S. Lewis, Icarus 15, 174–185 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. J. Licandro, N. Pinilla-Alonso, Astrophys. J. Lett. 630, L93 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. N. Ligier, F. Poulet, J. Carter, R. Brunetto, F. Gourgeot, Astron. J. 151, 163 (2016). doi: 10.3847/0004-6256/151/6/163 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. B. Little, C.D. Anger, A.P. Ingersoll, A.R. Vasavada, D.A. Senske, H.H. Breneman, W.J. Borucki (The Galileo SSI Team), Icarus 142, 306–323 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. K. Lodders, Astrophys. J. 591, 1220–1247 (2003). doi: 10.1086/375492 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. K. Lodders, B. Fegley Jr., Icarus 112, 368–375 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. R.M. Lopes, J.R. Spencer, Io After Galileo (Springer, Berlin, 2007). ISBN 978-3-540-34681-4 Google Scholar
  190. J.I. Lunine, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 217–263 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. K.E. Mandt, O. Mousis, J. Lunine, D. Gautier, Astrophys. J. 788(2), L24 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. M.S. Marley, P. Gomez, M. Podolak, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23349–23354 (1995). doi: 10.1029/95JE02362 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. A. Marten, D. Gautier, T. Owen, D.B. Sanders, H.E. Matthews, S.K. Atreya, R.P.J. Tilanus, J.R. Deane, Astrophys. J. 406, 285–297 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. R.M. Mastrapa, S.A. Sandford, T.L. Roush, D.P. Cruikshank, C.M. Dalle Ore, Astrophys. J. 701(2), 1347–1356 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. A. Matter, T. Guillot, A. Morbidelli, Planet. Space Sci. 57, 816–821 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.01.010 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. T.B. McCord, C. Sotin, J. Geophys. Res. 110(E5), E05009 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. T.B. McCord et al., Organics and other molecules in the surfaces of Callisto and Ganymede. Science 278, 271–275 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. T.B. McCord et al., Non-water ice constituents in the surface material of the icy Galilean satellites from the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer investigation. J. Geophys. Res. 103(E4), 8603–8626 (1998a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. McCord et al., Salts on Europa’s surface detected by Galileo’s Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer. Science 280(5367), 1242 (1998b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. T.B. McCord et al., Hydrated salt minerals on Europa’s surface from the Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) investigation. J. Geophys. Res. 104(E5), 11827–11852 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. T.B. McCord et al., Thermal and radiation stability of the hydrated salt minerals epsomite, mirabilite, and natron under Europa enviromental conditions. J. Geophys. Res. 106(E2), 3311–3319 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. T.B. McCord et al., Brines exposed to Europa surface conditions. J. Geophys. Res. 107(E1), 5004 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. T.B. McCord, P. Hayne, J.-P. Combe (The Cassini VIMS Team), Icarus 194, 212–242 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.039 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. McCord et al., Hydrated minerals on Europa’s surface: an improved look from the Galileo NIMS investigation. Icarus 209(2), 639–650 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. M.A. McGrath, E. Lellouch, D.F. Strobel, P.D. Feldman, R.E. Johnson, in Jupiter, ed. by F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W. McKinnon (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004) Google Scholar
  206. W.B. McKinnon, in Proceedings of International Conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, ACM 2002, 29 July–2 August 2002, Berlin, Germany, ed. by B. Warmbein. ESA, vol. SP-500 (ESA Publications Division, Noordwijk, 2002), pp. 29–38. ISBN 92-9092-810-7 Google Scholar
  207. W.B. McKinnon, F. Nimmo, T. Wong, P.M. Schenk, O.L. White, J.H. Roberts, J.M. Moore, J.R. Spencer, A.D. Howard, O.M. Umurhan, S.A. Stern, H.A. Weaver, C.B. Olkin, L.A. Young, K.E. Smith, R. Beyer, M. Buie, B. Buratti, A. Cheng, D. Cruikshank, C. Dalle Ore, R. Gladstone, W. Grundy, T. Lauer, I. Linscott, J. Parker, S. Porter, H. Reitsema, D. Reuter, S. Robbins, M. Showalter, K. Singer, D. Strobel, M. Summers, L. Tyler, M. Banks, O. Barnouin, V. Bray, B. Carcich, A. Chaikin, C. Chavez, C. Conrad, D. Hamilton, C. Howett, J. Hofgartner, J. Kammer, C. Lisse, A. Marcotte, A. Parker, K. Retherford, M. Saina, K. Runyon, E. Schindhelm, J. Stansberry, A. Steffl, T. Stryk, H. Throop, C. Tsang, A. Verbiscer, H. Winters, A. Zangari, New horizons geology, geophysics, and imaging theme team. Nature 534, 82–85 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. H.Y. McSween, J.P. Emery, A.S. Rivkin, M.J. Toplis, J. Castillo-Rogez, T.H. Prettyman, M.C. De Sanctis, C.M. Pieters, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Carbonaceous chondrites as analogs for the composition and alteration of Ceres. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. (2017, in press). doi: 10.1111/maps.12947
  209. F. Merlin, M.A. Barucci, E. Dotto, C. de Bergh, G. Lo Curto, Astron. Astrophys. 444, 977–982 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. F. Merlin, A. Alvarez-Candal, A. Delsanti, S. Fornasier, M.A. Barucci, F.E. DeMeo, C. de Bergh, A. Doressoundiram, E. Quirico, B. Schmitt, Astron. J. 137, 315 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Y. Miguel, T. Guillot, L. Fayon, Astron. Astroph. 596, A114 (2016). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629732 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. B. Militzer, W.B. Hubbard, Astrophys. J. 774, 148 (2013). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/774/2/148 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. G. Mitri, A. Coustenis, G. Fanchini, A.G. Hayes, L. Iess, K. Khurana, J.-P. Lebreton, R.M. Lopes, R.D. Lorenz, R. Meriggiola, M.L. Moriconi, R. Orosei, C. Sotin, E. Stofan, G. Tobie, T. Tokano, F. Tosi, Planet. Space Sci. 104, 78–92 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. H. Mizuno, Prog. Theor. Phys. 64, 544–557 (1980). doi: 10.1143/PTP.64.544 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. N. Monga, S. Desch, Astrophys. J. 798, 9 (2015). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/798/1/9 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. M.H. Moore et al., Studies of proton-irradiated cometary-type ice mixtures. Icarus 54, 388–405 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. J.M. Moore, C.R. Chapman, E.B. Bierhaus, R. Greeley, F.C. Chuang, J. Klemaszewski, R.N. Clark, J.B. Dalton, C.A. Hibbitts, P.M. Schenk, J.R. Spencer, R. Wagner, in Jupiter—The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, ed. by F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), pp. 397–426. ISBN 0-521-81808-7 Google Scholar
  218. J.M. Moore, W.B. McKinnon, J.R. Spencer, A.D. Howard, P.M. Schenk, R.A. Beyer, F. Nimmo, K.N. Singer, O.M. Umurhan, O.L. White, S.A. Stern, K. Ennico, C.B. Olkin, H.A. Weaver, L.A. Young, R.P. Binzel, M.W. Buie, B.J. Buratti, A.F. Cheng, D.P. Cruikshank, W.M. Grundy, I.R. Linscott, H.J. Reitsema, C. Reuter Dennis, R. Showalter Mark, V.J. Bray, C.L. Chavez, C.J.A. Howett, T.R. Lauer, C.M. Lisse, A.H. Parker, S.B. Porter, S.J. Robbins, K. Runyon, T. Stryk, H.B. Throop, C.C. Tsang Constantine, J. Verbiscer Anne, A.M. Zangari, A.L. Chaikin, D.E. Wilhelms, F. Bagenal, G.R. Gladstone, T. Andert, J. Andrews, M. Banks, B. Bauer, J. Bauman, O.S. Barnouin, P. Bedini, K. Beisser, S. Bhaskaran, E. Birath, M. Bird, D.J. Bogan, A. Bowman, M. Brozovic, C. Bryan, M.R. Buckley, S.S. Bushman, A. Calloway, B. Carcich, S. Conard, C.A. Conrad, J.C. Cook, O.S. Custodio, C.M. Dalle Ore, C. Deboy, Z.J.B. Dischner, P. Dumont, A.M. Earle, H.A. Elliott, J. Ercol, C.M. Ernst, T. Finley, S.H. Flanigan, G. Fountain, M.J. Freeze, T. Greathouse, J.L. Green, Y. Guo, M. Hahn, D.P. Hamilton, S.A. Hamilton, J. Hanley, A. Harch, H.M. Hart, C.B. Hersman, A. Hill, M.E. Hill, D.P. Hinson, M.E. Holdridge, M. Horanyi, C. Jackman, R.A. Jacobson, D.E. Jennings, J.A. Kammer, H.K. Kang, D.E. Kaufmann, P. Kollmann, S.M. Krimigis, D. Kusnierkiewicz, J.E. Lee, K.L. Lindstrom, A.W. Lunsford, V.A. Mallder, N. Martin, D.J. McComas, R.L. McNutt, D. Mehoke, T. Mehoke, E.D. Melin, M. Mutchler, D. Nelson, J.I. Nunez, A. Ocampo, W.M. Owen, M. Paetzold, B. Page, J.W. Parker, F. Pelletier, J. Peterson, N. Pinkine, M. Piquette, S. Protopapa, J. Redfern, J.H. Roberts, G. Rogers, D. Rose, K.D. Retherford, M.G. Ryschkewitsch, E. Schindhelm, B. Sepan, M. Soluri, D. Stanbridge, A.J. Steffl, D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, J.R. Szalay, M. Tapley, A. Taylor, H. Taylor, G.L. Tyler, M.H. Versteeg, M. Vincent, R. Webbert, S. Weidner, G.E. Weigle, K. Whittenburg, B.G. Williams, K. Williams, S. Williams, W.W. Woods, E. Zirnstein, Science 351, 1284–1293 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. J.I. Moses, E. Lellouch, B. Bezard, G.R. Gladstone, H. Feuchtgruber, M. Allen, Icarus 145, 166–202 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. J.I. Moses, T. Fouchet, B. Bézard, G.R. Gladstone, E. Lellouch, H. Feucht- gruber, J. Geophys. Res., Planets 110, E08001 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  221. O. Mousis, Y. Alibert, D. Hestroffer, U. Marboeuf, C. Dumas, B. Carry, J. Horner, F. Selsis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 383, 1269–1280 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. O. Mousis, L.N. Fletcher, J.-P. Lebreton et al., Planet. Space Sci. 104, 29–47 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. O. Mousis, D.H. Atkinson, T. Spilker, E. Venkatapathy, J. Poncy, R. Frampton, A. Coustenis, K. Reh, J.-P. Lebreton, L.N. Fletcher, R. Hueso, M.J. Amato, A. Colaprete, F. Ferri, D. Stam, P. Wurz, S. Atreya, S. Aslam, D.J. Banfield, S. Calcutt, G. Fischer, A. Holland, C. Keller, E. Kessler, M. Leese, P. Levacher, A. Morse, O. Muñoz, J.-B. Renard, S. Sheridan, F.-X. Schmider, F. Snik, J.H. Waite, M. Bird, T. Cavalié, M. Deleuil, J. Fortney, D. Gautier, T. Guillot, J.I. Lunine, B. Marty, C. Nixon, G.S. Orton, A. Sánchez-Lavega, Planet. Space Sci. 130, 80–103 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. S. Nayakshin, R. Helled, A.C. Boley, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 440, 3797–3808 (2014). doi: 10.1093/mnras/stu473 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. N. Nettelmann, A. Becker, B. Holst, R. Redmer, Astrophys. J. 750, 52 (2012). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/52 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. N. Nettelmann, R. Helled, J.J. Fortney, R. Redmer, Planet. Space Sci. 77, 143–151 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2012.06.019 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. S. Newman et al., Photometric and spectral analysis of the distribution of crystalline and amorphous ices on Enceladus as seen by Cassini. Icarus 193, 397–406 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. P.D. Nicholson et al., A close look at Saturn’s rings with Cassini VIMS. Icarus 193(1), 182–212 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. H.B. Niemann, S.K. Atreya, G.R. Carignan, T.M. Donahue, J.A. Haberman, D.N. Harpold, R.E. Hartle, D.M. Hunten, W.T. Kasprzak, P.R. Mahaffy, T.C. Owen, S.H. Way, J. Geophys. Res. 103(12), 22831–22846 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. H.B. Niemann, S.K. Atreya, J.E. Demick, D. Gautier, J.A. Haberman, D.N. Har- pold, W.T. Kasprzak, J.I. Lunine, T.C. Owen, F. Raulin, J. Geophys. Res., Planets 115, 12006 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. F. Nimmo, B. Giese, R.T. Pappalardo, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(5), 1233 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002GL016660 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. F. Nimmo, D.P. Hamilton, W.B. McKinnon, P.M. Schenk, R.P. Binzel et al., Nature 540, 94–96 (2016). doi: 10.1038/nature20148 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. C.A. Nixon, P.G.J. Irwin, S.B. Calcutt, F.W. Taylor, R.W. Carlson, Icarus 150, 48–68 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. K.S. Noll et al., Detection of ozone on Ganymede. Science 273(5273), 341–343 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. G.S. Orton, J.H. Lacy, J.M. Achtermann, P. Parmar, W.E. Blass, Icarus 100, 541–555 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. G.S. Orton, L.N. Fletcher, J.I. Moses, A.K. Mainzer, D. Hines, H.B. Hammel, F.J. Martin-Torres, M. Burgdorf, C. Merlet, M.R. Line, Icarus 243, 494–513 (2014a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. G.S. Orton, J.I. Moses, L.N. Fletcher, A.K. Mainzer, D. Hines, H.B. Hammel, J. Martin-Torres, M. Burgdorf, C. Merlet, M.R. Line, Icarus 243, 471–493 (2014b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. T. Owen, T. Encrenaz, Space Sci. Rev. 106, 121–138 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. T. Owen, P.R. Mahaffy, H.B. Niemann, S. Atreya, M. Wong, Astrophys. J. Lett. 553, L77–L79 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. R. Park, A.S. Konopliv, B.G. Bills, N. Rambaux, J.C. Castillo-Rogez, C.A. Raymond, A.T. Vaughan, A.I. Ermakov, M.T. Zuber, R.R. Fu, M.J. Toplis, C.T. Russell, A. Nathues, Nature 537, 515–517 (2016). doi: 10.1038/nature18955 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. M. Podolak, J.I. Podolak, M.S. Marley, Planet. Space Sci. 48, 143–151 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0032-0633(99)00088-4 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. J.B. Pollack, O. Hubickyj, P. Bodenheimer, J.J. Lissauer, M. Podolak, Y. Greenzweig, Icarus 124, 62–85 (1996). doi: 10.1006/icar.1996.0190 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. F. Postberg et al., Sodium salts in E-ring ice grains from an ocean below the surface of Enceladus. Nature 459(7250), 1098–1101 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. F. Poulet et al., Compositions of Saturn’s rings A, B, and C from high resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations. Astron. Astrophys. 412, 305–316 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. T.H. Prettyman, N. Yamashita, M.J. Toplis, H.Y. McSween, N. Schorghofer, S. Marchi, W.C. Feldman, J. Castillo-Rogez, O. Forni, D.J. Lawrence, E. Ammannito, B.L. Ehlmann, H.G. Sizemore, S.P. Joy, C.A. Polanskey, M.D. Rayman, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Science 355(6320), 55–59 (2017). doi: 10.1126/science.aah6765 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. L.M. Prockter, R.M.C. Lopes, B. Giese, R. Jaumann, R.D. Lorenz, R.T. Pappalardo, G.W. Patterson, P.C. Thomas, E.P. Turtle, R.J. Wagner, Space Sci. Rev. 153, 63–111 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9649-8 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. E. Quirico et al., Composition, physical state, and distribution of ices at the surface of Triton. Icarus 139(2), 159–178 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. F. Raulin, Space Sci. Rev. 116, 471–487 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s11214-005-1967-x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. R.T. Reynolds, P.M. Cassen, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6(2), 121–124 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. A.S. Rivkin, E.L. Volquardsen, B.E. Clark, Icarus 185, 563–567 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. M. Roos-Serote, A.R. Vasavada, L. Kamp, P. Drossart, P. Irwin, C. Nixon, R.W. Carlson, Nature 405, 158–160 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. E. Rosenblum, P. Garaud, A. Traxler, S. Stellmach, Astrophys. J. 731, 66 (2011). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/66 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. L. Roth et al., Transient water vapor at Europa’s south pole. Science 343(6167), 171–174 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. T.L. Roush et al., Ice and minerals on Callisto—a reassessment of the reflectance spectra. Icarus 86, 355–382 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. P. Rousselot, O. Pirali, E. Jehin, M. Vervloet, D. Hutsemekers, J. Manfroid, D. Cordier, M.-A. Martin-Drumel, S. Gruet, C. Arpigny, A. Decock, O. Mousis, Astrophys. J. 780(2), L17 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. O. Ruesch, T. Platz, P. Schenk, L.A. McFadden, J.C. Castillo-Rogez et al., Science 353(6303), aaf4286 (2016). doi: 10.1126/science.aaf4286 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. A. Sanchez-Lavega, T. del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, R. Hueso, J.M. Gomez-Forrellad, J.F. Sanz-Requena, J. Legarreta, E. Garcia-Melendo, F. Colas, J. Lecacheux, L.N. Fletcher, D. Barrado y Navascués, D. Parker, T. Akutsu, T. Barry, J. Beltran, S. Buda, B. Combs, F. Carvalho, P. Casquinha, M. Delcroix, S. Ghomizadeh, C. Go, J. Hotershall, T. Ikemura, G. Jolly, A. Kazemoto, T. Kumamori, M. Lecompte, P. Maxson, F.J. Melillo, D.P. Milika, E. Morales, D. Peach, J. Phillips, J.J. Poupeau, J. Sussenbach, G. Walker, S. Walker, T. Tranter, A. Wesley, T. Wilson, K. Yunoki (International Outer Planet Watch Team), Nature 475, 71–74 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. J. Saur, S. Duling, L. Roth et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 120(3), 1715–1737 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. E.L. Schaller, M.E. Brown, Astrophys. J. Lett. 659, L61 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. E.L. Schaller, M.E. Brown, Astrophys. J. Lett. 684, L107 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. P. Schenk, F. Nimmo, Nat. Geosci. 9, 411–412 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. B.E. Schmidt, D.D. Blankenship, G.W. Patterson, P.M. Schenk, Nature (2011). doi: 10.1038/nature10608 Google Scholar
  263. B.E. Schmidt et al., Nat. Geosci. 10, 338–343 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. B. Schmitt, E. Quirico, F. Trotta, W.M. Grundy, in Solar System Ices, ed. by B. Schmitt, C. De Bergh, M. Festou (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1998), pp. 199–240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. N. Schorghofer, E. Mazarico, T. Platz, F. Preusker, S.E. Schröder, C.A. Raymond, C.T. Russell, Geophys. Res. Lett. 43, 6783–6789 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. G. Schubert, F. Sohl, H. Hussmann, in Europa, ed. by R.T. Pappalardo, W.B. McKinnon, K.K. Khurana (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2009), pp. 353–368 Google Scholar
  267. F. Scipioni, F. Tosi, K. Stephan, G. Filacchione, M. Ciarniello, F. Capaccioni, P. Cerroni (the VIMS Team), Spectroscopic classification of icy satellites of Saturn I: identification of terrain units on Dione. Icarus 226, 1331–1349 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. F. Scipioni, F. Tosi, K. Stephan, G. Filacchione, M. Ciarniello, F. Capaccioni, P. Cerroni (the VIMS Team), Spectroscopic classification of icy satellites of Saturn II: identification of terrain units on Rhea. Icarus 234, 1–16 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. F. Scipioni, P. Schenk, F. Tosi, E. D’Aversa, R. Clark, J.-P. Combe, C.M. Dalle Ore, Deciphering sub-micron ice particles on Enceladus surface. Icarus 290, 183–200 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Y. Shinnaka, H. Kawakita, H. Kobayashi, M. Nagashima, D.C. Boice, Astrophys. J. 782, L16 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. J.H. Shirley et al., Icarus 210(1), 358–384 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. A. Showman, D.J. Stevenson, R. Mahlotra, Icarus 129, 367–383 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. S. Simon et al., Magnetic signatures of a tenuous atmosphere at Dione. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38(15), L15102 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. A.A. Simon-Miller, B. Conrath, P.J. Gierasch, R.F. Beebe, Icarus 145, 454–461 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. K.N. Singer, S.A. Stern, Astrophys. J. Lett. 808, L50 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. W.D. Smythe, T.B. McCord, A. Coradini, C.A. Hibbitts, F. Capaccioni, G.B. Hansen, G. Filacchione, R.N. Clark, P. Cerroni, R.H. Brown, K.H. Baines, G. Bellucci, J.-P. Bibring, B.J. Buratti, E. Bussoletti, M. Combes, D.P. Cruikshank, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, R. Jaumann, Y. Langevin, D.L. Matson, R.M. Nelson, P.D. Nicholson, B. Sicardy, C. Sotin, 29th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (1998), p. 1532 Google Scholar
  277. L.A. Soderblom, S.W. Kieffer, T.L. Becker, R.H. Brown, A.F. Cook, C.J. Hansen, T.V. Johnson, R.L. Kirk, E.M. Shoemaker, Science 250, 410–415 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. W.B. Sparks, K.P. Hand, M.A. McGrath, E. Bergeron, M. Cracraft, S.E. Deustua, Astrophys. J. 829(2), 121 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. J.R. Spencer, W.M. Calvin, M.J. Person, J. Geophys. Res. 100(E9), 19049–19056 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. J.R. Spencer, A.C. Barr, L.W. Esposito, P. Helfenstein, A.P. Ingersoll, R. Jaumann, C.P. McKay, F. Nimmo, J.H. Waite, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. by M.K. Dougherty, L.W. Esposito, S.M. Krimigis (Springer, Dordrecht, 2009), pp. 683–724. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9217-6_21 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. T. Spohn, G. Schubert, Icarus 161, 456–467 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. R. Srama, Space Sci. Rev. 114(1–4), 465–518 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. L.A. Sromovsky, P.M. Fry, J.H. Kim, Icarus 215, 292–312 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. L.A. Sromovsky, K.H. Baines, P.M. Fry, Icarus 226, 402–418 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. K. Stephan, Ph.D. Thesis, Freie Universität Berlin (2006).
  286. K. Stephan, H. Hoffmann, K. Hibbitts, R. Wagner, R. Jaumann, EPSC 2009, abstract n. 633 (2009) Google Scholar
  287. K. Stephan, R. Jaumann, R. Wagner, R.N. Clark, D.P. Cruikshank, C.A. Hibbitts, T. Roatsch, H. Hoffmann, R.H. Brown, G. Filiacchione, B.J. Buratti, G.B. Hansen, T.B. McCord, P.D. Nicholson, K.H. Baines, Icarus 206(2), 631–652 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. K. Stephan, R. Jaumann, R. Wagner, R.N. Clark, D.P. Cruikshank, B. Giese, C.A. Hibbitts, T. Roatsch, K. Matz, R.H. Brown, G. Filacchione, F. Cappacioni, F. Scholten, B.J. Buratti, G.B. Hansen, P.D. Nicholson, K.H. Baines, R. Nelson, D.L. Matson, Planet. Space Sci. 61(1), 142–160 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. S.T. Stewart, A. Seifter, A.W. Obst, Shocked \(\mbox{H}_{2}\mbox{O}\) ice: thermal emission measurements and the criteria for phase changes during impact events. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(23), L23203 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. C.R. Stoker, Icarus 67, 106–125 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. K. Sugiyama, K. Nakajima, M. Odaka, K. Kuramoto, Y.-Y. Hayashi, Icarus 229, 71–91 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. D. Takir, J.P. Emery, H.Y. McSween, Icarus 257, 185–193 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. B.D. Teolis, J.H. Waite, Icarus 272, 277–289 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. B.D. Teolis, G.H. Joneas, P.F. Miles, R.L. Tokar, B.A. Magee, J.H. Waite et al., Science 330(6012), 1813–1815 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. T. Terai, Y. Itoh, Y. Oasa, R. Furusho, J. Watanabe, Astrophys. J. 827, 65 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. G. Tobie, O. Grasset, J.I. Lunine, A. Mocquet, C. Sotin, Icarus (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.12.007 Google Scholar
  297. G. Tobie, J.I. Lunine, C. Sotin, Nature 440(7080), 61–64 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. R.L. Tokar, R.E. Johnson, M.F. Thomsen, E.C. Sittler, A.J. Coates, R.J. Wilson, D.T. Young, G.H. Jones, Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(3), L03105 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. F. Tosi, D. Turrini, A. Coradini, G. Filacchione (the VIMS Team), Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 403(3), 1113–1130 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. N. Turner, M. Choukroun, J. Castillo-Rogez, G. Bryden, Astrophys. J. Lett. 748, 92 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. S. Vance, J.M. Brown, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 110, 176–189 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. S. Vance, M. Bouffard, M. Choukroun, C. Sotin, Planet. Space Sci. 96, 62–70 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2014.03.011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. A. Vazan, R. Helled, M. Podolak, A. Kovetz, Astrophys. J. 829, 118 (2016). doi: 10.3847/0004-637X/829/2/118 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. C. Visscher, J.I. Moses, S.A. Saslow, Icarus 209, 602–615 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. J.H. Waite, W.S. Lewis, W.T. Kasprzak, V.G. Anicich, B.P. Block, T.E. Cravens, G.G. Fletcher, W.-H. Ip, J.G. Luhmann, R.L. Mcnutt, H.B. Niemann, J.K. Parejko, J.E. Richards, R.L. Thorpe, E.M. Walter, R.V. Yelle, Space Sci. Rev. 114(1–4), 113–231 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. J.H. Waite, M.R. Combi, W.H. Ip, T.E. Cravens, R.L. McNutt, W. Kasprzak, R. Yelle, J. Luhmann, H. Niemann, D. Gell, B. Magee, G. Fletcher, J. Lunine, W.L. Tseng, Science 311(5766), 1419–1422 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. J.H. Waite, D.T. Young, T.E. Cravens, A.J. Coates, F.J. Crary, B. Magee, J. Westlake, Science 316(5826), 870 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. J.H. Waite, W.S. Lewis, B.A. Magee, J.I. Lunine, W.B. McKinnon, C.R. Glein, O. Mousis, D.T. Young, T. Brockwell, J. Westlake, M.-J. Nguyen, B.D. Teolis, H.B. Niemann, R.L. McNutt Jr., M. Perry, W.-H. Ip, Nature 460(7254), 487–490 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. K.J. Walsh, A. Morbidelli, S.N. Raymond, D.P. O’Brien, A.M. Mandell, Nature 475, 206–209 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. H.A. Weaver, M.W. Buie, B.J. Buratti, W.M. Grundy, T.R. Lauer, C.B. Olkin, A.H. Parker, S.B. Porter, M.R. Showalter, J.R. Spencer, S.A. Stern, A.J. Verbiscer, W.B. McKinnon, J.M. Moore, S.J. Robbins, P. Schenk, K.N. Singer, O.S. Barnouin, A.F. Cheng, C.M. Ernst, C.M. Lisse, D.E. Jennings, A.W. Lunsford, D.C. Reuter, D.P. Hamilton, D.E. Kaufmann, K. Ennico, L.A. Young, R.A. Beyer, R.P. Binzel, V.J. Bray, A.L. Chaikin, J.C. Cook, D.P. Cruikshank, C.M. Dalle Ore, A.M. Earle, G.R. Gladstone, C.J.A. Howett, I.R. Linscott, F. Nimmo, J.W. Parker, S. Philippe, S. Protopapa, H.J. Reitsema, B. Schmitt, T. Stryk, M.E. Summers, C.C.C. Tsang, H.H.B. Throop, O.L. White, A.M. Zangari, Science 351, aae0030 (2016) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. S.J. Weidenschilling, J.S. Lewis, Icarus 20, 465–476 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. R.A. West, K.H. Baines, A.J. Friedson et al., in Jovian Clouds and Haze, ed. by F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon (2004), pp. 79–104 Google Scholar
  313. K. Wierzchos, M. Womack, G. Sarid, Astron. J. 153, 230 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. M.H. Wong, G.L. Bjoraker, M.D. Smith, F.M. Flasar, C.A. Nixon, Planet. Space Sci. 52, 385–395 (2004a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. M. Wong, P. Mahaffy, S. Atreya, H. Niemann, T. Owen, Icarus 171(1), 153–170 (2004b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. G. Wuchterl, T. Guillot, J.J. Lissauer, in Giant Planet Formation, Protostars and Planets IV (2000), p. 1081 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Grasset
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Castillo-Rogez
    • 2
  • T. Guillot
    • 3
  • L. N. Fletcher
    • 4
  • F. Tosi
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Planétologie et GéodynamiqueLPG-Nantes UMR 6112Nantes Cedex 03France
  2. 2.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  3. 3.Observatoire de la Côte d’AzurNice Cedex 4France
  4. 4.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  5. 5.INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia SpazialiRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations