Space Science Reviews

, Volume 212, Issue 1–2, pp 743–810 | Cite as

Water in the Earth’s Interior: Distribution and Origin

  • Anne H. PeslierEmail author
  • Maria Schönbächler
  • Henner Busemann
  • Shun-Ichiro Karato
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The Delivery of Water to Protoplanets, Planets and Satellites


The concentration and distribution of water in the Earth has influenced its evolution throughout its history. Even at the trace levels contained in the planet’s deep interior (mantle and core), water affects Earth’s thermal, deformational, melting, electrical and seismic properties, that control differentiation, plate tectonics and volcanism. These in turn influenced the development of Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and life. In addition to the ubiquitous presence of water in the hydrosphere, most of Earth’s “water” actually occurs as trace amounts of hydrogen incorporated in the rock-forming silicate minerals that constitute the planet’s crust and mantle, and may also be stored in the metallic core. The heterogeneous distribution of water in the Earth is the result of early planetary differentiation into crust, mantle and core, followed by remixing of lithosphere into the mantle after plate-tectonics started. The Earth’s total water content is estimated at \(18_{-15}^{+81}\) times the equivalent mass of the oceans (or a concentration of \(3900_{-3300}^{+32700}~\mbox{ppm}\) weight H2O). Uncertainties in this estimate arise primarily from the less-well-known concentrations for the lower mantle and core, since samples for water analyses are only available from the crust, the upper mantle and very rarely from the mantle transition zone (410–670 km depth). For the lower mantle (670–2900 km) and core (2900–4500 km), the estimates rely on laboratory experiments and indirect geophysical techniques (electrical conductivity and seismology).

The Earth’s accretion likely started relatively dry because it mainly acquired material from the inner part of the proto-planetary disk, where temperatures were too high for the formation and accretion of water ice. Combined evidence from several radionuclide systems (Pd-Ag, Mn-Cr, Rb-Sr, U-Pb) suggests that water was not incorporated in the Earth in significant quantities until the planet had grown to \(\sim60\mbox{--}90\%\) of its current size, while core formation was still on-going. Dynamic models of planet formation provide additional evidence for water delivery to the Earth during the same period by water-rich planetesimals originating from the asteroid belt and possibly beyond. This early delivered water may have been partly lost during giant impacts, including the Moon forming event: magma oceans can form in their aftermath, degas and be followed by atmospheric loss. More water may have been delivered and/or lost after core formation during late accretion of extraterrestrial material (“late-veneer”). Stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and some noble gases in Earth’s materials show similar compositions to those in carbonaceous chondrites, implying a common origin for their water, and only allowing for minor water inputs from comets.


Water Hydrogen Earth Crust Mantle Core Delivery Origin Solar system 



The authors are very grateful to Rosie Jones and an anonymous reviewer for careful detailed comments that greatly improved this manuscript. MS also thanks Hilke Schlichting for inspiring discussions that helped to improve the manuscript. Thanks to editor Michel Blanc and ISSI in Bern (Switzerland) for organizing in February 2016 the workshop on Water delivery to the Solar System from which this book originates. This work was supported by NSF grant #OCE1624310 to AHP and, in part (HB and MS), has been carried out within the frame of the National Centre for Competence in Research ‘PlanetS’ supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne H. Peslier
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Schönbächler
    • 2
  • Henner Busemann
    • 2
  • Shun-Ichiro Karato
    • 3
  1. 1.JacobsNASA-Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Department of Earth SciencesETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Geology and GeophysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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