Skip to main content
Log in

Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Instrument Design and Calibration

  • Published:
Space Science Reviews Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) instrument was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The instrument was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90 km and 300 km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth’s limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm wavelength. The wavelength shift is measured using field-widened, temperature compensated Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometers, employing low order échelle gratings operating at two different orders for the different atmospheric lines. The temperature measurement is accomplished by a multichannel photometric measurement of the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen A-band around 762 nm wavelength. For each field of view, the signals of the two oxygen lines and the A-band are detected on different regions of a single, cooled, frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD) detector. On-board calibration sources are used to periodically quantify thermal drifts, simultaneously with observing the atmosphere. The MIGHTI requirements, the resulting instrument design and the calibration are described.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • ASTM 2000 Standard Extraterrestrial Spectrum Reference E-490-00, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2000). http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am0/ASTM2000.html. Accessed 17 June 2016

  • G.A. Barrick, J. Ward, J.-C. Cuillandre, Proc. SPIE (2012). doi:10.1117/12.926409

    Google Scholar 

  • W. Cheung, H.M. Borowski, J.R. Troll, P.D. Wienhold, Development of Solar Array Substrates for the RBSP Spacecraft, Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering Conference (2011). http://rbspgway.jhuapl.edu/sites/default/files/webform/dropbox/SAMPE_Spring_2011_RBSP_Solar_Array_Substrates_final.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2016

    Google Scholar 

  • S. Buchman, W. Bencze, R. Brumley, B. Keiser, G.M. Clarke (Am. Inst. of Phys., New York, 1998), pp. 178–187. 1-56396-848-7/98

  • A.B. Christensen, R.L. Bishop, S.A. Budzien, J.H. Hecht, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M. Russell III., A.W. Stephan, R.W. Walterscheid, J. Geophys. Res. (2013). doi:10.1002/jgra.50317

    Google Scholar 

  • E.N. Borson, Proc. SPIE 5526 (2004). doi:10.1117/12.562179

  • e2v technologies, CCD42-80 Back Illuminated High Performance CCD Sensor, E2v technologies, A1A-100025 Issue 9 (2006). http://www.e2v.com/shared/content/resources/File/documents/imaging-space-and-scientific-sensors/12-42-80.pdf. Accessed 05 May 2016

  • S. Ellis, MIGHTI Stray Light Analysis Update. Photon Engineering LLC (2014)

  • C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, J.G. Cardon, F.L. Roesler, Appl. Opt. (2004). doi:10.1364/AO.43.006680

    Google Scholar 

  • C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, Appl. Opt. 45, 4583 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • C.R. Englert, D.D. Babcock, J.M. Harlander, Appl. Opt. 46, 7297 (2007)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • C.R. Englert, M.H. Stevens, D.E. Siskind, J.M. Harlander, F.L. Roesler, J. Geophys. Res. (2010a). doi:10.1029/2010JD014398

    Google Scholar 

  • C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, J.T. Emmert, D.D. Babcock, F.L. Roesler, Opt. Express 18, 27416 (2010b)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, C.M. Brown, J.W. Meriwether, J.J. Makela, M. Castelaz, J.T. Emmert, D.P. Drob, K.D. Marr, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. (2012). doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2012.07.002

    Google Scholar 

  • M. Fruit, A. Gusarov, D. Doyle, Proc. SPIE 4823, 132 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • W.A. Gault, J.-F. Brun, D.-L. Desaulniers, D.W. Miller, F. Pasternak, Y. Rochon, J.M. Rupil, G.G. Shepherd, Proc. SPIE 1753, 189 (1992)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • B.J. Harding, J.J. Makela, C.R. Englert, K.D. Marr, J.M. Harlander, S.L. England, T.J. Immel, Space Sci. Rev. (2017). doi:10.1007/s11214-017-0359-3

    Google Scholar 

  • J.M. Harlander, R.J. Reynolds, F.L. Roesler, Astrophys. J. 396, 730 (1992)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.M. Harlander, C.R. Englert, D.D. Babcock, F.L. Roesler, Opt. Express 18, 26430 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.M. Harlander, C.R. Englert, C.M. Brown, K.D. Marr, I. Miller, V. Zastera, T.J. Immel, Space Sci. Rev. (2017, this issue)

  • P.B. Hays, V.J. Abreu, M.E. Dobbs, D.A. Gell, H.J. Grassl, W.R. Skinner, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10713 (1993)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • T.J. Immel et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2017, this issue)

  • T.L. Killeen, Q. Wu, S.C. Solomon, D.A. Ortland, W.R. Skinner, R.J. Niciejewski, D.A. Gell, J. Geophys. Res. (2006). doi:10.1029/2005JA011484

    Google Scholar 

  • C. Lathuillière, W.A. Gault, B. Lamballais, Y.J. Rochon, B.H. Solheim, Ann. Geophys. 20, 203 (2002)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • G. Liu PhD Dissertation, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (2006)

  • R.A. Lucas et al. ACS Data Handbook, Version 8.0 (STScI, Baltimore, 2016)

  • K.D. Marr, C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, Opt. Express (2012). doi:10.1364/OE.20.009535

    Google Scholar 

  • K.D. Marr, C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, K.W. Miller, Appl. Opt. (2013). doi:10.1364/AO.52.008082

    Google Scholar 

  • C.A. McLinden, J.C. McConnell, E. Griffioen, C.T. McElroy, Can. J. Phys. (2002). doi:10.1139/P01-156

    Google Scholar 

  • S.B. Mende, G.R. Swenson, E.J. Llewellyn, W.F. Denig, D.J.W. Kendall, T.G. Slanger, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 12861 (1988)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • MIGHTI Flight Model Calibration Report, SSD-RPT-MI013 Rev. (2016)

  • M.L. Morrow, W.H. Morrow, L. Majorana, SPIE J. 1945, 478–483 (1993)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.F. Noxon, A. Vallence Jones, Nature (1962). doi:10.1038/196157a0

    Google Scholar 

  • K.W. Ogilvie et al., Space Sci. Rev. 71, 55–77 (1995)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.Q. Peterson, J.G. Cardon, P. Sevilla, J. Hancock, C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, C.M. Brown, K.D. Marr, Logan UT (2016). MIGHTI Spectral Calibration, CALCON Technical Meeting, 22-25

  • D. Rees, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T.L. Killeen, P.B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • P.E. Sheese, E.J. Llewellyn, R.L. Gattinger, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, N.D. Lloyd, I.C. McDade, Can. J. Phys. 88, 919 (2010)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • P.E. Sheese, E.J. Llewellyn, R.L. Gattinger, A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, N.D. Lloyd, I.C. McDade, Geophys. Res. Lett. (2011). doi:10.1029/2011GL047437

    Google Scholar 

  • G.G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, W.A. Gault, B.H. Solheim, C. Hersom, J.M. Alunni, J.-F. Brun, S. Brune, P. Charlot, L.L. Cogger, D.-L. Desaulniers, W.F.J. Evans, R.L. Gattinger, F. Girod, D. Harvie, R.H. Hum, D.J.W. Kendall, E.J. Llewellyn, R.P. Lowe, J. Ohrt, F. Pasternak, O. Peillet, I. Powell, Y. Rochon, W.E. Ward, R.H. Wiens, J. Wimperis, J. Geophys. Res. (1993). doi:10.1029/93JD00227

    Google Scholar 

  • G.G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W.F.J. Evans, W.A. Gault, C. Hersom, D.J.W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R.P. Lowe, I.C. McDade, Y.J. Rochon, M.G. Shepherd, B.H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang, W.E. Ward, Rev. Geophys. (2012). doi:10.1029/2012RG000390

    Google Scholar 

  • W.J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd edn. (McGraw-Hill, New York, (1990). 139ff

    Google Scholar 

  • M.H. Stevens, C.R. Englert, J.M. Harlander, S.L. England, K.D. Marr, C.M. Brown, T.J. Immel, Space Sci. Rev. (2017, this issue)

  • G. Thuillier, W. Gault, J.-F. Brun, M. Hersé, W. Ward, C. Hersom, Appl. Opt. 37, 1356 (1998)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • L. Wallace, D.M. Hunten, J. Geophys. Res. 15, 4813 (1968)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • D.L. Wu, M.J. Schwartz, J.W. Waters, V. Limpasuvan, Q. Wu, T.L. Killeen, Adv. Space Res. (2007). doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.06.014

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

ICON is supported by NASA’s Explorers Program through contracts NNG12FA45C and NNG12FA42I. We acknowledge helpful discussions and advice from Prof. Gordon Shepherd (York University). We acknowledge the dedication and tireless work of all engineers, technicians and administrative support on the MIGHTI and larger ICON team, including Rebecca Baugh, Patrick Bell, Joel Cardon, Angel Cerrato, James Cook, John Dancheck, Tori Fae, Tracy Heard, Steve Hershner, Lynn Hutting, Steve Kinaman, Will Marchant, Sally McCann, Miles Newman, David Nolan, John Pindell, Mark Ponton, Roger Prokic, Jack Sanders, John Shaw, Pedro Sevilla, Linda Smith, Tabetha Sykes, Steven Tanner, Warren Tolson, Emory Toomey, Drew Uhl, Mike Watson, Glenn Weigle, Vaz Zastera, and Dallas Zurcher.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christoph R. Englert.

Additional information

The Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission

Edited by Doug Rowland and Thomas J. Immel

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Englert, C.R., Harlander, J.M., Brown, C.M. et al. Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Instrument Design and Calibration. Space Sci Rev 212, 553–584 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-017-0358-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-017-0358-4

Keywords

Navigation