Space Science Reviews

, Volume 200, Issue 1–4, pp 261–355 | Cite as

Oblique Whistler-Mode Waves in the Earth’s Inner Magnetosphere: Energy Distribution, Origins, and Role in Radiation Belt Dynamics

  • Anton ArtemyevEmail author
  • Oleksiy Agapitov
  • Didier Mourenas
  • Vladimir Krasnoselskikh
  • Vitalii Shastun
  • Forrest Mozer


In this paper we review recent spacecraft observations of oblique whistler-mode waves in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere as well as the various consequences of the presence of such waves for electron scattering and acceleration. In particular, we survey the statistics of occurrences and intensity of oblique chorus waves in the region of the outer radiation belt, comprised between the plasmapause and geostationary orbit, and discuss how their actual distribution may be explained by a combination of linear and non-linear generation, propagation, and damping processes. We further examine how such oblique wave populations can be included into both quasi-linear diffusion models and fully nonlinear models of wave-particle interaction. On this basis, we demonstrate that varying amounts of oblique waves can significantly change the rates of particle scattering, acceleration, and precipitation into the atmosphere during quiet times as well as in the course of a storm. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms for such oblique waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that oblique whistler-mode chorus waves can be considered as an important ingredient of the radiation belt system and can play a key role in many aspects of wave-particle resonant interactions.


Wave-particle interaction Earth radiation belts Whistler waves 



A.A. and D.M. are grateful to A. Vasiliev for fruitful discussions and important inputs. A.A. appreciates the useful discussions with D. Shklyar and A. Demekhov.

V.K., A.A. and O.A. are grateful to D. Boscher and G. Rolland for persistent support of radiation belts studies in LPC2E. V.K. is grateful to CNES for financial support of the activities presented in this Review during years 2008–2014 through a series of grants Modele d’Ondes and Modele d’ondes pour le code SALAMMBO. Part of this work was also supported by a contract with CEA.

The work of O.A. and F.S.M. has been supported by JHU/APL Contract No. 922613 (RBSP-EFW), NASA contract NAS5-02099 and NASA Grant NNX09AE41G.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anton Artemyev
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Oleksiy Agapitov
    • 2
  • Didier Mourenas
    • 3
  • Vladimir Krasnoselskikh
    • 1
  • Vitalii Shastun
    • 1
  • Forrest Mozer
    • 2
  1. 1.LPC2E/CNRSUniversity of OrleansOrleans CEDEXFrance
  2. 2.Space Science LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.CEA, DAMDIFArpajonFrance
  4. 4.Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary PhysicsUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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