Skip to main content

The MAVEN Solar Energetic Particle Investigation

Abstract

The MAVEN Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instrument is designed to measure the energetic charged particle input to the Martian atmosphere. SEP consists of two sensors mounted on corners of the spacecraft deck, each utilizing a dual, double-ended solid-state detector telescope architecture to separately measure fluxes of electrons from 20 to 1000 keV and ions from 20–6000 keV, in four orthogonal look directions, each with a field of view of \(42^{\circ}\) by \(31^{\circ}\). SEP, along with the rest of the MAVEN instrument suite, allows the effects of high energy solar particle events on Mars’ upper atmospheric structure, temperatures, dynamics and atmospheric escape rates, to be quantified and understood. Given that solar activity was likely substantially higher in the early solar system, understanding the relationship between energetic particle input and atmospheric loss today will enable more confident estimates of total atmospheric loss over Mars’ history.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  • S. Agostinelli, J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Araujo et al., GEANT4—a simulation toolkit. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 506, 250–303 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J. Allison, K. Amako, J. Apostolakis, H. Arauho, P. Arce Dubois et al., Geant4 developments and applications. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53, 270–278 (2006)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • L. Andersson, R.E. Ergun, G. Delory, The Langmuir probe and waves experiment for MAVEN. Space Sci. Rev. (2015). doi:10.1007/s11214-015-0194-3

    Google Scholar 

  • V. Angelopoulos, D. Sibeck, C.W. Carlson et al., First results from the THEMIS mission. Space Sci. Rev. (2008). doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9378-4

    Google Scholar 

  • S. Barabash et al., The analyzer of space plasmas and energetic atoms (ASPERA-3) for the Mars express mission. Space Sci. Rev. 126, 113–164 (2006). doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9124-8

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.-L. Bertaux, F. Leblanc, O. Witasse, E. Quemerais, J. Lilensten, S.A. Stern, B. Sandel, O. Korablev, Discovery of an aurora on Mars. Nature 435, 790–794 (2005). doi:10.1038/nature03603

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • M.W. Chevalier, W.B. Peter, U.S. Inan, T.F. Bell, M. Spasojevic, Remote sensing of ionospheric disturbances associated with energetic particle precipitation using the South Pole VLF beacon. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A11306 (2007). doi:10.1029/2007JA012425

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.E.P. Connerney, J. Espley, P. Lawton, S. Murphy, J. Odom, R. Oliversen, D. Sheppard, The Maven magnetic field investigation. Space Sci. Rev. (2015). doi:10.1007/s11214-015-0169-4

  • A.V. Dmitriev, H.-C. Yeh, Geomagnetic signatures of sudden ionospheric disturbances during extreme solar radiation events. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70, 1971–1984 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.05.008

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • F. Eparvier, P.C. Chamberlin, T.N. Woods, E.M.B. Thiemann, The solar extreme ultraviolet monitor for MAVEN. Space Sci. Rev. (2015). doi:10.1007/s11214-015-0195-2

  • J.R. Espley, W.M. Farrell, D.A. Brain, D.D. Morgan, B. Cantor, J.J. Plaut, M.H. Acuña, G. Picardi, Absorption of MARSIS radar signals: Solar energetic particles and the daytime ionosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L09101 (2007). doi:10.1029/2006GL028829

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • Y. Futaana et al., Mars express and Venus express multi-point observations of geoeffective solar flare events in December 2006. Planet. Space Sci. 56(6), 873–880 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.S. Halekas, E.R. Taylor, G. Dalton, G. Johnson, D.W. Curtis, J.P. McFadden, D.L. Mitchell, R.P. Lin, B.M. Jakosky, The solar wind ion analyzer for MAVEN. Space Sci. Rev. (2013). doi:10.1007/s11214-013-0029-z

    Google Scholar 

  • D.M. Hassler et al., The radiation assessment detector (RAD) investigation. Space Sci. Rev. 170, 503–558 (2012). doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9913-1

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • D.M. Hassler et al., Mars’ surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory’s curiosity rover. Science 343 (2014). doi:10.1126/science.1244797

  • B.M. Jakosky, R.P. Lin, J.M. Grebowsky, J.G. Luhmann, D.F. Mitchell, G. Beutelschies et al., The Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution (MAVEN) mission. Space Sci. Rev. (2014). doi:10.1007/s11214-015-0139-x

    Google Scholar 

  • M. Kaiser, The STEREO mission: An overview. Adv. Space Res. 36, 1483 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • F. Leblanc, O. Witasse, J. Winningham, D. Brain, J. Lilensten, P.-L. Blelly, R.A. Frahm, J.S. Halekas, J.L. Bertaux, Origins of the Martian aurora observed by spectroscopy for investigation of characteristics of the atmosphere of mars (SPICAM) on board Mars express. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A09313 (2006). doi:10.1029/2006JA011763

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • R.J. Lillis, D.A. Brain, G.T. Delory, D.L. Mitchell, J.G. Luhmann, R.P. Lin, Evidence for superthermal secondary electrons produced by SEP ionization in the Martian atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 117, E03004 (2012). doi:10.1029/2011JE003932

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  • R.J. Lillis, D.A. Brain, S.W. Bougher, F. Leblanc, J.G. Luhmann, B.M. Jakosky, R. Modolo, J. Fox, J. Deighan, X. Fang, Y.C. Wang, Y. Lee, C. Dong, Y. Ma, T. Cravens, L. Andersson, S.M. Curry, N. Schneider, M. Combi, I. Stewart, J. Clarke, J. Grebowsky, D.L. Mitchell, R. Yelle, A.F. Nagy, D. Baker, R.P. Lin, Characterizing atmospheric escape from Mars today and through time, with MAVEN. Space Sci. Rev. (2015). doi:10.1007/s11214-015-0165-8

  • R.P. Lin et al., A 3-dimensional plasma and energetic particle investigation for the wind spacecraft. Space Sci. Rev. 71(1–4), 125–153 (1995)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • R.P. Lin, D.W. Curtis, D.E. Larson, J.G. Luhmann, S.E. McBride, M.R. Maier, T. Moreau, C.S. Tindall, P. Turin, L. Wang, The STEREO IMPACT suprathermal electron (STE) instrument. Space Sci. Rev. (2008). doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9330-7

    Google Scholar 

  • P.R. Mahaffy, M. Benna, T. King et al., The neutral gas and ion mass spectrometer on the Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution mission. Space Sci. Rev. (2014). doi:10.1007/s11214-014-0091-1

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  • W.E. McClintock, N.M. Schneider, G.M. Holsclaw, J.T. Clarke, A.C. Hoskins, I. Stewart, F. Montmessin, R.V. Yelle, J. Deighan, The imaging ultraviolet spectrograph (IUVS) for the MAVEN mission. Space Sci. Rev. (2014). doi:10.1007/s11214-014-0098-7

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  • J. McFadden, O. Kortmann, G.J. Dalton, R. Abiad, D. Curtis, R. Sterling, K. Hatch, P. Berg, C. Tiu, M. Marckwordt, R. Lin, B. Jakosky, The MAVEN suprathermal and thermal ion composition (STATIC) instrument. Space Sci. Rev. (2015)

  • S.V. McKenna-Lawlor, V. Afonin, K.I. Gringauz, K. Kecskemety, E. Keppler, f.F. Kirsch, f.A. Richter, P. Rusznyak, K. Schwingenschuh, D. O’Sullivan, A.J. Somogyi, L. Szabo, A. Thompson, A. Varga, Ye. Yeroshenkoll, M. Witte, Energetic particle studies at Mars by SLED on Phobos-2. Adv. Space Res. 12(9), 231–241 (1992)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • D.L. Mitchell, R.P. Lin, C. Mazelle, H. Rème, P.A. Cloutier, J.E.P. Connerney, M.H. Acuna, N.F. Ness, Probing Mars’ crustal magnetic field and ionosphere with the MGS electron reflectometer. J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23419–23427 (2001). doi:10.1029/2000JE001435

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • D.D. Morgan, D.A. Gurnett, D.L. Kirchner, R.L. Huff, D.A. Brain, W.V. Boynton, M.H. Acuña, J.J. Plaut, G. Picardi, Solar control of radar wave absorption by the Martian ionosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L13202 (2006). doi:10.1029/2006GL026637

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • R. Müller-Mellin, S. Böttcher, J. Falenski, E. Rode, L. Duvet, T. Sanderson, B. Butler, B. Johlander, H. Smit, The solar electron and proton telescope for the STEREO mission. Space Sci. Rev. 136(1–4), 363–389 (2008). doi:10.1007/s11214-007-9204-4

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • J.B. Reagan, T.M. Watt, Simultaneous satellite and radar studies of the D region ionosphere during the intense solar particle events of August 1972. J. Geophys. Res. 81(25), 4579–4596 (1976). doi:10.1029/JA081i025p04579

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  • C. Zeitlin, T. Cleghorn, F. Cucinotta, P. Saganti, V. Andersen, K. Lee, L. Pinsky, W. Atwell, R. Turner, G. Badhwar, Overview of the Martian radiation environment experiment. Adv. Space Res. 33(12), 2204–2210 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert J. Lillis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Larson, D.E., Lillis, R.J., Lee, C.O. et al. The MAVEN Solar Energetic Particle Investigation. Space Sci Rev 195, 153–172 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-015-0218-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-015-0218-z

Keywords

  • Field Programmable Gate Array
  • Solar Energetic Particle
  • Dead Layer
  • Martian Atmosphere
  • Incident Electron Energy