Space Science Reviews

, Volume 179, Issue 1, pp 579–615

AE9, AP9 and SPM: New Models for Specifying the Trapped Energetic Particle and Space Plasma Environment

  • G. P. Ginet
  • T. P. O’Brien
  • S. L. Huston
  • W. R. Johnston
  • T. B. Guild
  • R. Friedel
  • C. D. Lindstrom
  • C. J. Roth
  • P. Whelan
  • R. A. Quinn
  • D. Madden
  • S. Morley
  • Yi-Jiun Su
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11214-013-9964-y

Cite this article as:
Ginet, G.P., O’Brien, T.P., Huston, S.L. et al. Space Sci Rev (2013) 179: 579. doi:10.1007/s11214-013-9964-y

Abstract

The radiation belts and plasma in the Earth’s magnetosphere pose hazards to satellite systems which restrict design and orbit options with a resultant impact on mission performance and cost. For decades the standard space environment specification used for spacecraft design has been provided by the NASA AE8 and AP8 trapped radiation belt models. There are well-known limitations on their performance, however, and the need for a new trapped radiation and plasma model has been recognized by the engineering community for some time. To address this challenge a new set of models, denoted AE9/AP9/SPM, for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma has been developed. The new models offer significant improvements including more detailed spatial resolution and the quantification of uncertainty due to both space weather and instrument errors. Fundamental to the model design, construction and operation are a number of new data sets and a novel statistical approach which captures first order temporal and spatial correlations allowing for the Monte-Carlo estimation of flux thresholds for user-specified percentile levels (e.g., 50th and 95th) over the course of the mission. An overview of the model architecture, data reduction methods, statistics algorithms, user application and initial validation is presented in this paper.

Keywords

Radiation belt modeling Energetic trapped particles Space environment climatology Space weather 

Copyright information

© US Government 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Ginet
    • 1
  • T. P. O’Brien
    • 2
  • S. L. Huston
    • 3
  • W. R. Johnston
    • 4
  • T. B. Guild
    • 2
  • R. Friedel
    • 6
  • C. D. Lindstrom
    • 4
  • C. J. Roth
    • 5
  • P. Whelan
    • 5
  • R. A. Quinn
    • 5
  • D. Madden
    • 3
  • S. Morley
    • 6
  • Yi-Jiun Su
    • 4
  1. 1.MIT Lincoln LaboratoryLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.The Aerospace CorporationChantillyUSA
  3. 3.The Institute for Scientific Research, 400 St. Clement’s HallBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA
  4. 4.Space Vehicles DirectorateAir Force Research LaboratoryKirtland AFBUSA
  5. 5.Atmospheric and Environmental Research, IncorporatedLexingtonUSA
  6. 6.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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