Space Science Reviews

, Volume 179, Issue 1–4, pp 579–615 | Cite as

AE9, AP9 and SPM: New Models for Specifying the Trapped Energetic Particle and Space Plasma Environment

  • G. P. Ginet
  • T. P. O’Brien
  • S. L. Huston
  • W. R. Johnston
  • T. B. Guild
  • R. Friedel
  • C. D. Lindstrom
  • C. J. Roth
  • P. Whelan
  • R. A. Quinn
  • D. Madden
  • S. Morley
  • Yi-Jiun Su
Article

Abstract

The radiation belts and plasma in the Earth’s magnetosphere pose hazards to satellite systems which restrict design and orbit options with a resultant impact on mission performance and cost. For decades the standard space environment specification used for spacecraft design has been provided by the NASA AE8 and AP8 trapped radiation belt models. There are well-known limitations on their performance, however, and the need for a new trapped radiation and plasma model has been recognized by the engineering community for some time. To address this challenge a new set of models, denoted AE9/AP9/SPM, for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma has been developed. The new models offer significant improvements including more detailed spatial resolution and the quantification of uncertainty due to both space weather and instrument errors. Fundamental to the model design, construction and operation are a number of new data sets and a novel statistical approach which captures first order temporal and spatial correlations allowing for the Monte-Carlo estimation of flux thresholds for user-specified percentile levels (e.g., 50th and 95th) over the course of the mission. An overview of the model architecture, data reduction methods, statistics algorithms, user application and initial validation is presented in this paper.

Keywords

Radiation belt modeling Energetic trapped particles Space environment climatology Space weather 

References

  1. T.W. Armstrong, B.L. Colborn, Evaluation of trapped radiation model uncertainties for spacecraft design, NASA/CR-2000-210072, 2000 Google Scholar
  2. D.M. Boscher, S.A. Bourdarie, R.H.W. Friedel, R.D. Belian, Model for the geostationary electron environment: POLE. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50, 2278–2283 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. S.A. Bourdarie et al., PRBEM data analysis procedure V1.2, COSPAR Panel on Radiation Belt Environment Modeling (PRBEM), 2008, available at http://craterre.onecert.fr/prbem/Data_analysis.pdf
  4. S.A. Bourdarie, A. Sicard-Piet, R. Friedel, T.P. O’Brien, T. Cayton, B. Blake, D. Boscher, D. Lazaro, Outer electron belt specification model. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 2251–2257 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D.H. Brautigam, CRRES in review: space weather and its effects on technology. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 64, 1709–1721 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D.H. Brautigam, J. Bell, CRRESELE documentation, PL-TR-95-2128, ADA 301770, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1995 Google Scholar
  7. D.H. Brautigam, M.S. Gussenhoven, E.G. Mullen, Quasi-static model of outer zone electrons. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 39, 1797–1803 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. D.H. Brautigam, K.P. Ray, G.P. Ginet, D. Madden, Specification of the radiation belt slot region: comparison of the NASA AE8 model with TSX5/CEASE data. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 3375–3380 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. D.H. Brautigam, B. Dichter, S. Woolf, E. Holeman, A. Ling, D. Wrazen, Compact environmental anomaly sensor (CEASE): response functions, AFRL-VS-HATR-2006-1030, Air Force Research Laboratory, 2006 Google Scholar
  10. J. Cabrera, J. Lemaire, Using invariant altitude (hinv) for mapping of the radiation belt fluxes in the low-altitude environment. Space Weather 5, S04007 (2007). doi:10.1029/2006SW000263 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. T.C. Cayton, Objective comparison of CRRES MEA electron spectra using response functions for the SOPA aboard S/C 1989-046, LA-UR-07-8023, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 2007 Google Scholar
  12. T.E. Cayton, R.D. Belian, Numerical modeling of the synchronous orbit particle analyzer (SOPA, Version 2) the Flew on S/C 1990-095, Los Alamos Technical Report, LA-14335, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 2007 Google Scholar
  13. Y. Chen, R.H.W. Friedel, G.D. Reeves, T. Onsager, M.F. Thomsen, Multisatellite determination of the relativistic electron phase space density at geosynchronous orbit: methodology and results during geomagnetically quiet times. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A10210 (2005). doi:10.1029/2004JA010895 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. E.J. Daly, J. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, D.J. Rodgers, Problems with models of the radiation belts. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 43, 403–415 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. B.K. Dichter, F.A. Hanser, B. Sellers, J.L. Hunerwadel, High energy electron fluxmeter. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40, 242–245 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. B. Efron, R. Tibshirani, An Introduction to the Bootstrap (Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, 1993) CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. D. Evans, M.S. Greer, Polar orbiting environmental satellite space environment monitor—2. Instrument descriptions and archive data documentation, NOAA Tech. Mem. 1.4, Space Environ. Lab., Boulder, CO, 2004 Google Scholar
  18. M. Evans, N. Hastings, B. Peacock, Statistical Distributions, 3rd edn. (Wiley, Hoboken, 2000) MATHGoogle Scholar
  19. J.F. Fennell, J.B. Blake, D. Heynderickx, N. Crosby, HEO observations of the radiation belt electron fluxes: comparison with model predictions and a source for model updates. Eos Trans. AGU 84, #SH52A-05 (2003) Google Scholar
  20. R.H.W. Friedel, S. Bourdarie, T. Cayton, Intercalibration of magnetospheric energetic electron data. Space Weather 3, S09B04 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005SW000153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. S.F. Fung, Recent developments in the NASA trapped radiation models, in Radiation Belts: Models and Standards, ed. by J.F. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, D.N. Baker. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 97 (AGU, Washington, 1996), pp. 79–91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. G.P. Ginet, T.P. O’Brien, AE-9/AP-9 trapped radiation and plasma models requirements specification, Aerospace Technical Report, TOR-2010(3905)-3, 2010 Google Scholar
  23. G.P. Ginet, S.L. Huston, C.J. Roth, T.P. O’Brien, T.B. Guild, The trapped proton environment in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57, 3135–3142 (2010) Google Scholar
  24. G. Ginet, T. O’Brien, J. Mazur, C. Groves, W. Olson, G. Reeves, AE(P)-9: the next generation radiation specification models, in Proceedings of the GOMACTech-08 Conference, 17–20 March, Las Vegas, NV (2008) Google Scholar
  25. G.P. Ginet, B.K. Dichter, D.H. Brautigam, D. Madden, Proton flux anisotropy in low Earth orbit. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54, 1975–1980 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. GOES I-M Data Book, DRL 101-0801 ed. Space Systems Loral, Aug. 31, 1996, GOES/SEM information [online]. Available: http://rsd.gsfc.nasa.gov/goes/text/goes.databook.html
  27. T. Guild, T.P. O’Brien, J. Mazur, M. Looper, On-orbit inter-calibration of proton observations during solar particle events, Aerospace Report No. TOR-2007(3905)-22, Aerospace Corporation, 2009 Google Scholar
  28. M.S. Gussenhoven, E.G. Mullen, M.D. Violet, C. Hein, J. Bass, D. Madden, CRRES high energy proton flux maps. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 40(6), 1450–1457 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. M.S. Gussenhoven, E.G. Mullen, D.H. Brautigam, Near-Earth radiation model deficiencies as seen on CRRES. Adv. Space Res. 14, 927–941 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. F.A. Hanser, Analyze data from CRRES payloads AFGL-701/Dosimeter and AFGL-701-4/Fluxmeter, PL-TR-95-2103, Phillips Laboratory, AFMC, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1995 Google Scholar
  31. D. Heynderickx, M. Kruglanski, V. Pierrard, J. Lemaire, M.D. Looper, J.B. Blake, A low altitude trapped proton model for solar minimum conditions based on SAMPEX/PET data. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, 1475–1480 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. S.L. Huston, Space environment and effects: trapped proton model, NASA/CR-2002-211784, NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center, Huntsville, AL, 2002 Google Scholar
  33. S.L. Huston, G.A. Kuck, K.A. Pfitzer, Low altitude trapped radiation model using TIROS/NOAA data, in Radiation Belts: Models and Standards, ed. by J.F. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, D.N. Baker. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 97 (AGU, Washington, 1996), pp. 119–124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. S. Huston, G. Ginet, T.P. O’Brien, T. Guild, D. Madden, R. Friedel, AE/AP-9 radiation specification model: an update, in Proceedings of the GOMACTech-08 Conference, 17–18 March, Orlando, FL (2009) Google Scholar
  35. IGRF, The international geomagnetic reference field, 2012. Available at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/
  36. IRBEM, The international radiation belt environmental modeling library, 2012. Available at http://irbem.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/irbem/web/index.html
  37. C.E. Jordan, Empirical models of the magnetospheric magnetic field. Rev. Geophys. 32, 139–157 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. W.R. Johnston, C.D. Lindstrom, G.P. Ginet, Characterization of radiation belt electron energy spectra from CRRES observations, Abstract #SM33C-1925, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 2010 Google Scholar
  39. W.R. Johnston, C.D. Lindstrom, G.P. Ginet, CRRES medium electron sensor A (MEA) and high energy electron fluxmeter (HEEF): cross-calibrated data set, AFRL, 2011, available at ftp://virbo.org/johnston/crres/MEAHEEFCC.pdf
  40. W.R. Johnston et al., AE9/AP9/SPM radiation environment model, Technical Documentation, in preparation to be released as an Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report, 2013 Google Scholar
  41. J. Koller, S. Zaharia, LANL V2.0: global modeling and validation. Geosci. Model Dev. 4, 669–675 (2011). doi:10.5194/gmd-4-669-2011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. J. Koller, G.D. Reeves, R.H.W. Friedel, LANL V1.0: a radiation belt drift shell model suitable for real-time and reanalysis applications. Geosci. Model Dev. 2, 113–122 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. H.C. Koons, J.E. Mazur, R.S. Selesenick, J.B. Blake, J.F. Fennell, J.L. Roeder, P.C. Anderson, The impact of the space environment on space systems, in 6th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference, AFRL Tech. Report No. AFRL-VS-TR-20001578, pp. 7–11, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 2000 Google Scholar
  44. J.-M. Lauenstein, J.L. Barth, D.G. Sibeck, Toward the development of new standard radiation belt and space plasma models for spacecraft engineering. Space Weather 3, S08B03 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005SW000160. Presentations from the workshop are available online at http://lwsscience.gsfc.nasa.gov/RB_meeting1004.htm CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. A.M. Lenchek, S.F. Singer, Effects of the finite gyroradii of geomagnetically trapped protons. J. Geophys. Res. 67, 4073–4075 (1962) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. J. Mazur, L. Friesen, A. Lin, D. Mabry, N. Katz, Y. Dotan, J. George, J.B. Blake, M. Looper, M. Redding, T.P. O’Brien, J. Cha, A. Birkitt, P. Carranza, M. Lalic, F. Fuentes, R. Galvan, M. McNab, The relativistic proton spectrometer (RPS) for the radiation belt storm probes mission. Space Sci Rev. (2012, this issue). doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9926-9
  47. J.P. McCollough, J.L. Gannon, D.N. Baker, M. Gehmeyr, A statistical comparison of commonly used external magnetic field models. Space Weather 6, S10001 (2008). doi:10.1029/2008SW000391 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. C.E. McIlwain, Coordinates for mapping the distribution of magnetically trapped particles. J. Geophys. Res. 6, 3681 (1961) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. J.D. Meffert, M.S. Gussenhoven, CRRESPRO documentation, PL-TR-94-2218, ADA 284578, Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1994 Google Scholar
  50. A. Milillo, S. Orsini, I.A. Daglis, Empirical model of proton flux in the equatorial inner magnetosphere: development. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25713–25729 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. J. Niehof, Diamagnetic cavities and energetic particles in the Earth’s magnetospheric cusps. PhD Thesis, Boston University, 2011 Google Scholar
  52. T.P. O’Brien, A framework for next-generation radiation belt models. Space Weather 3, S07B02 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005SW000151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. T.P. O’Brien, Documentation of C inversion library, 2010, available as part of IRBEM-LIB at http://irbem.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/irbem/web/index.html
  54. T.P. O’Brien, Adding multiple time lags to AE9/AP9 V1.0, Aerospace Report No. TOR-2012(1237)-3, 2012a Google Scholar
  55. T.P. O’Brien, Data cleaning guidelines for AE-9/AP-9 data sets, Aerospace Report No. TOR-2012(1237)-4, 2012b Google Scholar
  56. T.P. O’Brien, T.B. Guild, Trapped electron model 2 (TEM-2), Aerospace Report No. TR-2010(3905)-2, Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA, 2010 Google Scholar
  57. W.P. Olson, K.A. Pfitzer, Magnetospheric magnetic field modeling, Annual Scientific Report, Air Force Office of Scientific Research contract F44620-75-C-0033, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., Huntington Beach, CA, 1977 Google Scholar
  58. W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992) MATHGoogle Scholar
  59. Radiation models for engineering and operations, session at the 2007 NOAA Space Weather Workshop. Presentations from the workshop are available at: http://helios.sec.noaa.gov/sww/index.html, 2007
  60. Radiation Specifications Forum, 2007. Website at: http://lws-set.gsfc.nasa.gov/RadSpecsForum.htm
  61. G.D. Reeves, Y. Chen, G.S. Cunningham, R.W.H. Friedel, M.G. Henderson, V.K. Jordanova, J. Koller, S.K. Morley, M.F. Thomsen, S. Zaharia, Dynamic radiation environment assimilation model: DREAM. Space Weather 10, S03006 (2012). doi:10.1029/2011SW000729 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. C.J. Rodger et al., Use of POES SEM-2 observations to examine radiation belt dynamics and energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 115, A04202 (2010). doi:10.1029/2008JA014023 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. J.L. Roeder, M.W. Chen, J.F. Fennell, R. Friedel, Empirical models of the low-energy plasma in the inner magnetosphere. Space Weather 3, S12B06 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005SW000161 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. J.G. Roederer, Dynamics of Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation (Springer, New York, 1970) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. C.J. Roth et al., AE9/AP9/SPM radiation environment model. User’s guide, in preparation to be released as an Air Force Research Laboratory Technical Report, 2013 Google Scholar
  66. J.A. Sauvaud, T. Moreau, R. Maggiolo, J.-P. Treilhou, C. Jacquey, A. Cros, J. Coutelier, J. Rouzaud, E. Penou, M. Gangloff, High-energy electron detection onboard DEMETER: the IDP spectrometer, description and first results on the inner belt. Planet. Space Sci. 54, 502–511 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. D.M. Sawyer, J.I. Vette, AP-8 trapped proton model environment for solar maximum and minimum, NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 76-06, Natl. Space Sci. Data Cent., Greenbelt, MD, 1976 Google Scholar
  68. M. Schulz, Canonical coordinates for radiation belt modeling, in Radiation Belts: Models and Standards, ed. by J.F. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, D.N. Baker. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 97 (AGU, Washington, 1996), pp. 153–160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. R.S. Selesnick, M.D. Looper, R.A. Mewaldt, A theoretical model of the inner proton radiation belt. Space Weather 5, S04003 (2007). doi:10.1029/2006SW00275 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. S.M. Seltzer, Updated calculations for routine space-shielding radiation dose estimates: SHIELDOSE-2. Gaithersburg, MD, NIST Publication NISTIR 5477, 1994 Google Scholar
  71. V.P. Shabansky, Some processes in the magnetosphere. Space Sci. Rev. 12(3), 299–418 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. A. Sicard-Piet, S. Bourdarie, D. Boscher, R.H.W. Friedel, M. Thomsen, T. Goka, H. Matsumoto, H. Koshiishi, A new international geostationary electron model: IGE-2006, from 1 keV to 5.2 MeV. Space Weather 6, S07003 (2008). doi:10.1029/2007SW000368 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. J.D. Sullivan, Geometrical factor and directional response of single and multi-element particle telescopes. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 95(1), 5–11 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. M.F. Thomsen, D.J. McComas, G.D. Reeves, L.A. Weiss, An observational test of the Tsyganenko (T89a) model of the magnetic field. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24827–24836 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. M.F. Thomsen, M.H. Denton, B. Lavraud, M. Bodeau, Statistics of plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit over more than a full solar cycle. Space Weather 5, S03004 (2007). doi:10.1029/2006SW000257 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. A.L. Vampola, The ESA outer zone electron model update, in Environment Modelling for Space-Based Applications, Symposium Proceedings (ESA SP-392), ed. by W. Burke, T.-D. Guyenne, 18–20 September 1996 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, 1996), p. 151 Google Scholar
  77. J.I. Vette, The NASA/National Space Science Data Center Trapped Radiation Environment Model Program (TREMP) (1964–1991), NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 91-29, Natl. Space Sci. Data Cent., Greenbelt, MD, 1991a Google Scholar
  78. J.I. Vette, The AE-8 trapped electron model environment, NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 91-24, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 1991b Google Scholar
  79. D.S. Wilks, Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd edn. (Academic Press, Burlington, 2006) Google Scholar
  80. G.L. Wrenn, A.J. Sims, Internal charging in the outer zone and operational anomalies, in Radiation Belts: Models and Standards, ed. by J.F. Lemaire, D. Heynderickx, D.N. Baker. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 97 (AGU, Washington, 1996), pp. 275–278 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. M.A. Xapsos, G.P. Summers, E.A. Burke, Probability model for peak fluxes of solar proton events. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(6), 2948–2953 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. M.A. Xapsos, G.P. Summers, J.L. Barth, E.G. Stassinopoulos, E.A. Burke, Probability model for worst case solar proton event fluences. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46(6), 1481–1485 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. P. Ginet
    • 1
  • T. P. O’Brien
    • 2
  • S. L. Huston
    • 3
  • W. R. Johnston
    • 4
  • T. B. Guild
    • 2
  • R. Friedel
    • 6
  • C. D. Lindstrom
    • 4
  • C. J. Roth
    • 5
  • P. Whelan
    • 5
  • R. A. Quinn
    • 5
  • D. Madden
    • 3
  • S. Morley
    • 6
  • Yi-Jiun Su
    • 4
  1. 1.MIT Lincoln LaboratoryLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.The Aerospace CorporationChantillyUSA
  3. 3.The Institute for Scientific Research, 400 St. Clement’s HallBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA
  4. 4.Space Vehicles DirectorateAir Force Research LaboratoryKirtland AFBUSA
  5. 5.Atmospheric and Environmental Research, IncorporatedLexingtonUSA
  6. 6.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations