Space Science Reviews

, Volume 175, Issue 1–4, pp 125–164 | Cite as

Solar Wind Conditions and Composition During the Genesis Mission as Measured by in situ Spacecraft

  • Daniel B. Reisenfeld
  • Roger C. Wiens
  • Bruce L. Barraclough
  • John T. Steinberg
  • Marcia Neugebauer
  • Jim Raines
  • Thomas H. Zurbuchen
Special Communication


We describe the Genesis mission solar-wind sample collection period and the solar wind conditions at the L1 point during this 2.3-year period. In order to relate the solar wind samples to solar composition, the conditions under which the samples were collected must be understood in the context of the long-term solar wind. We find that the state of the solar wind was typical of conditions over the past four solar cycles. However, Genesis spent a relatively large fraction of the time in coronal-hole flow as compared to what might have been expected for the declining phase of the solar cycle. Data from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) are used to determine the effectiveness of the Genesis solar-wind regime selection algorithm. The data collected by SWICS confirm that the Genesis algorithm successfully separated and collected solar wind regimes having distinct solar origins, particularly in the case of the coronal hole sample. The SWICS data also demonstrate that the different regimes are elementally fractionated. When compared with Ulysses composition data from the previous solar cycle, we find a similar degree of fractionation between regimes as well as fractionation relative to the average photospheric composition.

The Genesis solar wind samples are under long-term curation at NASA Johnson Space Center so that as sample analysis techniques evolve, pristine solar wind samples will be available to the scientific community in the decades to come. This article and a companion paper (Wiens et al. 2013, this issue) provide post-flight information necessary for the analysis of the Genesis array and foil solar wind samples and the Genesis solar wind ion concentrator samples, and thus serve to complement the Space Science Review volume, The Genesis Mission (v. 105, 2003).


Solar wind Solar wind composition Solar wind sample collection Solar composition 

Definitions, Abbreviations, and Acronyms


Bulk collectors that were at the top of the stack and in the Canister lid. These were exposed continuously during the science collection period


Collector array directly below the B array. This array was exposed to coronal mass ejection flows and questionable flows


Collector array below the E array. This array was exposed to high-speed, or coronal hole flows


Bottom collector array in the stack. This array was exposed to low-speed, or interstream wind


Collectors in the SRC lid, primarily to investigate radioactive nuclei in the solar wind


Coronal mass ejections


Coronal hole, or fast wind


Insterstream, or slow wind




Science return capsule


Station keeping maneuvers, which occurred approximately every 2 months


L1 orbit insertion, which occurred prior to the beginning of the science collection phase of the mission


The Lagrangian point between the Earth and the Sun

Unshaded position

Rotational position of the deployable solar-wind collector arrays where individual, regime-specific arrays were exposed.

Deployed position

Rotational position of the deployable solar-wind collector arrays where the B array remained during collection, and where the regime-specific arrays were positioned when they were not exposed or acting as a contamination barrier



The authors wish to acknowledge the NASA Laboratory Analysis of Returned Samples (LARS) program (Grants NNX10AH57G and NNH10A046I) and the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) for supporting this work. The OMNI data were obtained from the GSFC/SPDF OMNIWeb interface at The authors thank the ACE science team for making their data available for this study. T.H.Z. and J.R. were supported in part by NASA grant NNX08AI11G.

Supplementary material

11214_2013_9960_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (136 kb)
(PDF 136 kB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel B. Reisenfeld
    • 1
  • Roger C. Wiens
    • 1
  • Bruce L. Barraclough
    • 1
  • John T. Steinberg
    • 1
  • Marcia Neugebauer
    • 1
  • Jim Raines
    • 1
  • Thomas H. Zurbuchen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MontanaMissoulaUSA

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