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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 173, Issue 1–4, pp 369–431 | Cite as

Observational Signatures of Particle Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

  • E. A. HelderEmail author
  • J. Vink
  • A. M. Bykov
  • Y. Ohira
  • J. C. Raymond
  • R. Terrier
Article

Abstract

We evaluate the current status of supernova remnants as the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. We summarize observations of supernova remnants, covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum and describe what these observations tell us about the acceleration processes by high Mach number shock fronts. We discuss the shock modification by cosmic rays, the shape and maximum energy of the cosmic-ray spectrum and the total energy budget of cosmic rays in and surrounding supernova remnants. Additionally, we discuss problems with supernova remnants as main sources of Galactic cosmic rays, as well as alternative sources.

Keywords

Supernova remnants Cosmic rays Acceleration of particles 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the anonymous referee for carefully reading the manuscript. The authors thank the ISSI in Bern for their hospitality and for organizing the workshop that resulted in this chapter. This work has been supported by SAO grant GO0-11072X (E.A.H.). A.M.B. was supported in part by the Russian government grant 11.G34.31.0001 to Sankt-Petersburg State Politechnical University, and also by the RAS Presidium Program and by the RFBR grant 11-02-12082. He performed the simulations at the Joint Supercomputing Center (JSCC RAS) and the Supercomputing Center at Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Helder
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Vink
    • 2
  • A. M. Bykov
    • 3
  • Y. Ohira
    • 4
  • J. C. Raymond
    • 5
  • R. Terrier
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey LaboratoryThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Astronomical Institute Anton PannekoekUniversiteit van AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Ioffe Institute for Physics and TechnologySt. Petersburg State Politechnical UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.Theory CenterInstitute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization)TsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA
  6. 6.Astroparticule et CosmologieUniversitè Paris7/CNRS/CEAParisFrance

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