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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 173, Issue 1–4, pp 309–339 | Cite as

Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

  • Andrei Bykov
  • Neil Gehrels
  • Henric Krawczynski
  • Martin Lemoine
  • Guy Pelletier
  • Martin PohlEmail author
Article

Abstract

In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

Keywords

Cosmic rays Particle acceleration Shocks 

Notes

Acknowledgements

A.M.B. was supported in part by the Russian government grant 11.G34.31.0001 to Sankt-Petersburg State Politechnical University, and also by the RAS and RAS Presidium Programs and by the RFBR grant 11-02-12082. N.G. acknowledges scientific discussions and assistance by J. Cannizzo. M.P. is supported by the ‘Helmholtz Alliance for Astroparticle Phyics HAP’ funded by the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association. M.L. and G.P. acknowledge financial support of the PEPS/PTI program of the CNRS-INP.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrei Bykov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Neil Gehrels
    • 3
  • Henric Krawczynski
    • 4
  • Martin Lemoine
    • 5
  • Guy Pelletier
    • 6
  • Martin Pohl
    • 7
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Ioffe Institute of Physics and TechnologySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.St. Petersburg State Politechnical UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.NASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA
  5. 5.Institut d’Astrophysique de ParisCNRS-UPMCParisFrance
  6. 6.Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de GrenobleGrenoble Cédex 9France
  7. 7.Institut für Physik und AstronomieUniversität PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  8. 8.DESYZeuthenGermany

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