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Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds

Abstract

Mechanisms of thunderstorm electrification are presented and discussed.

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Correspondence to Clive Saunders.

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Saunders, C. Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds. Space Sci Rev 137, 335 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-008-9345-0

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Keywords

  • Charge separation mechanisms: drop break-up, ion charging, convective charge transport, inductive processes
  • Ice particle mechanisms: Workman–Reynolds freezing potentials, contact potentials, dislocation charges, temperature gradients, melting effects, ice splinter charges, fragmentation effects
  • Ice crystal/graupel charging: thunderstorm observations, charging requirements, laboratory studies, ice/ice charging mechanism