Space Science Reviews

, 137:335 | Cite as

Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds

Article

Abstract

Mechanisms of thunderstorm electrification are presented and discussed.

Keywords

Charge separation mechanisms: drop break-up, ion charging, convective charge transport, inductive processes Ice particle mechanisms: Workman–Reynolds freezing potentials, contact potentials, dislocation charges, temperature gradients, melting effects, ice splinter charges, fragmentation effects Ice crystal/graupel charging: thunderstorm observations, charging requirements, laboratory studies, ice/ice charging mechanism 

References

  1. S. Al-Said, PhD Thesis. The University of Manchester, 1977 Google Scholar
  2. E.E. Avila, G.M. Caranti, N.E. Castellano, C.P.R. Saunders, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1669–1679 (1999) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. E.E. Avila, G.S. Longo, R.E. Bürgesser, Atmospheric Res. 69, 99–108 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. B. Baker, M.B. Baker, E.R. Jayaratne, J. Latham, C.P.R. Saunders, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 113, 1193–1215 (1987) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. H. Bax-Norman, PhD Thesis. The University of Manchester, 2004 Google Scholar
  6. D.C. Blanchard, Progress in Oceanography, vol. 1 (Pergamon Press, Elmsford, 1963) Google Scholar
  7. I.M. Brooks, C.P.R. Saunders, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10627–10632 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. O. Buser, A.N. Aufdermaur, in Electrical Processes in Atmospheres (Steinkopf, Darmstadt, 1977) Google Scholar
  9. G.M. Caranti, A.J. Illingworth, Nature 284, 44–46 (1980) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. J.M. Caranti, A.J. Illingworth, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 8483–8489 (1983) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. J.M. Caranti, A.J. Illingworth, S.J. Marsh, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 6041–6046 (1985) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. G.M. Caranti, E.E. Avila, M.A. Ré, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15365–15375 (1991) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. H. Christian, C.R. Holmes, J.W. Bullock, W. Gaskell, A.J. Illingworth, J. Latham, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 159–174 (1980) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. J.G. Dash, B.L. Mason, J.S. Wettlaufer, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20395–20402 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. J.E. Dinger, R. Gunn, Terr. Magn. Atmos. Electr. 51, 477 (1946) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Y. Dong, J. Hallett, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 20361–20371 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. J.C. Drake, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 176–191 (1968) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. J.E. Dye, J.J. Jones, W.P. Winn, T.A. Cerni, B. Gardiner, D. Lamb, R. Pitter, J. Hallett, C.P.R. Saunders, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 1231–1247 (1986) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. J. Elster, H. Geitel, Zur Influenztheorie der Niederschlagselektrizitat, Phys. Z. 1287–1292 (1913) Google Scholar
  20. C. Emersic, PhD Thesis. The University of Manchester, UK, 2006 Google Scholar
  21. W. Findeisen, Meteor. Zeit. 57, 201–215 (1940) Google Scholar
  22. W. Findeisen, E. Findeisen, Meteor. Z. 60, 5 (1943) Google Scholar
  23. W. Gaskell, A.J. Illingworth, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 841–854 (1980) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. H. Gerdien, Phys. Z. 6, 647–666 (1905) Google Scholar
  25. G. Grenet, Ann. Geophys. 3, 306–307 (1947) Google Scholar
  26. J. Hallett, S.C. Mossop, Nature 249, 26–28 (1974) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. J. Hallett, C.P.R. Saunders, JAS 36, 2230–2235 (1979) Google Scholar
  28. J.H. Helsdon Jr., S. Gattaleeradapan, R.D. Farley, C.C. Waits, J. Geophys. Res. 107(D22), 4630 (2002). doi:10.1029/2001JD001495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. A.J. Illingworth, J.M. Caranti, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 6033–6039 (1985) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. A.J. Illingworth, M.I. Lees, Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmos. Elec., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1992, p. 9345 Google Scholar
  31. E.R. Jayaratne, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Manchester, UK, 1981 Google Scholar
  32. E.R. Jayaratne, C.P.R. Saunders, J. Hallett, Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 609–630 (1983) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. W.D. Keith, Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Manchester, UK, 1987 Google Scholar
  34. W.D. Keith, C.P.R. Saunders, Atmospheric Res. 25, 445–464 (1990) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. P.R. Krehbiel, M. Brook, R.A. McCrory, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 2432–2456 (1979) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. P.R. Krehbiel, Studies in Geophysics, Nat. Ac. Press, 90–113 (1986) Google Scholar
  37. J. Latham, B.J. Mason, Proc. R. Soc. A 260, 537–549 (1961) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. P. Lenard, Ann. Phys. Lpz, 46 (1892) Google Scholar
  39. B.J.P. Marshall, J. Latham, C.P.R. Saunders, Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 163–178 (1978) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. B.J. Mason, Quart. J. R. Soc. 79, 501–509 (1953) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. B.J. Mason, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A415, 303–315 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. B. Mason, J.G. Dash, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10185–10192 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. S. Masuelli, C.M. Scavuzzo, G.M. Caranti, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11049–11059 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. R.G. Pereyra, E.E. Avila, N.E. Castellano, C.P.R. Saunders, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20803–20813 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. S.E. Reynolds, M. Brook, J. Met. 13, 376–380 (1956) Google Scholar
  46. S.E. Reynolds, M. Brook, M.F. Gourley, J. Met. 14, 426–436 (1957) Google Scholar
  47. J.P. Rydock, E.R. Williams, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 117, 409–420 (1991) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. C.P.R. Saunders, S. Al-Said, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2650–2654 (1976) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. C.P.R. Saunders, M. Hickson, M.D. Malone, J. von Richtofen, Atmospheric Res. 29, 261–270 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. C.P.R. Saunders, S.L. Peck, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13949–13956 (1998) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. C.P.R. Saunders, H. Bax-Norman, C. Emersic, E.E. Avila, N.E. Castellano, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 132, 2653–2673 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. C.M. Scavuzzo, E.E. Avila, G.M. Caranti, Atmospheric Res. 37, 325–342 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. M. Stolzenburg, W.D. Rust, T.C. Marshall, J. Geophys. Res. 14079-14096 (1998) Google Scholar
  54. T. Takahashi, J. Atmospheric Sci. 35, 1536–1548 (1978) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. B. Vonnegut, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 34, 378–381 (1953) Google Scholar
  56. E.R. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 13151–13167 (1989) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. C.T.R. Wilson, Proc. R. Soc. A 92, 555–574 (1916) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. C.T.R. Wilson, J. Franklin Inst. 208, 1–12 (1929) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. E.J. Workman, S.E. Reynolds, Phys. Rev. 78, 254–259 (1950) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental SciencesThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations