Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds
- First Online:
Mechanisms of thunderstorm electrification are presented and discussed.
KeywordsCharge separation mechanisms: drop break-up, ion charging, convective charge transport, inductive processes Ice particle mechanisms: Workman–Reynolds freezing potentials, contact potentials, dislocation charges, temperature gradients, melting effects, ice splinter charges, fragmentation effects Ice crystal/graupel charging: thunderstorm observations, charging requirements, laboratory studies, ice/ice charging mechanism
© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008