Space Science Reviews

, 137:335

Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds


DOI: 10.1007/s11214-008-9345-0

Cite this article as:
Saunders, C. Space Sci Rev (2008) 137: 335. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9345-0


Mechanisms of thunderstorm electrification are presented and discussed.


Charge separation mechanisms: drop break-up, ion charging, convective charge transport, inductive processes Ice particle mechanisms: Workman–Reynolds freezing potentials, contact potentials, dislocation charges, temperature gradients, melting effects, ice splinter charges, fragmentation effects Ice crystal/graupel charging: thunderstorm observations, charging requirements, laboratory studies, ice/ice charging mechanism 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental SciencesThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations