Space Science Reviews

, 137:335

Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds



Mechanisms of thunderstorm electrification are presented and discussed.


Charge separation mechanisms: drop break-up, ion charging, convective charge transport, inductive processes Ice particle mechanisms: Workman–Reynolds freezing potentials, contact potentials, dislocation charges, temperature gradients, melting effects, ice splinter charges, fragmentation effects Ice crystal/graupel charging: thunderstorm observations, charging requirements, laboratory studies, ice/ice charging mechanism 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental SciencesThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

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