Charge Separation Mechanisms in Clouds
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- Saunders, C. Space Sci Rev (2008) 137: 335. doi:10.1007/s11214-008-9345-0
Mechanisms of thunderstorm electrification are presented and discussed.
KeywordsCharge separation mechanisms: drop break-up, ion charging, convective charge transport, inductive processes Ice particle mechanisms: Workman–Reynolds freezing potentials, contact potentials, dislocation charges, temperature gradients, melting effects, ice splinter charges, fragmentation effects Ice crystal/graupel charging: thunderstorm observations, charging requirements, laboratory studies, ice/ice charging mechanism
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