Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Bertrand, M., Chugh, D., & Mullainathan, S. (2005). Implicit discrimination. American Economic Review,
Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? American Economic Review,
Blatz, C. W., & Ross, M. (2009). Principled ideology or racism: Why do modern racists oppose race-based social justice programs? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,
Bobo, L. (1983). Whites’ opposition to busing: Symbolic racism or realistic group conflict? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Bobo, L. (2000). Race and beliefs about affirmative action: Assessing the effects of interests, group threat, ideology and racism. In D. O. Sears, J. Sidanius, & L. Bobo (Eds.), Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America (pp. 137–164). Chicago: University of Chicago.
Buckler, K., Wilson, S., & Salinas, P. R. (2009). Public support for punishment and progressive criminal justice policy preferences: The role of symbolic racism and negative racial stereotype. American Journal of Criminal Justice,
Carmine, E. G., & Merriman, W. R., Jr. (1993). The changing American dilemma: Liberal values and racial policies. In P. M. Sniderman, P. E. Tetlock, & E. G. Carmines (Eds.), Prejudice, politics, and the American dilemma (pp. 237–255). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Crandall, C. S., & Eshleman, A. (2003). A justification-suppression model of the expression and experience of prejudice. Psychological Bulletin,
de Tocqueville, A. (1981). Democracy in America. Reprint. New York: Doubleday. (Original work published 1835).
Duckitt, J. (2001). A cognitive-motivational theory of ideology and prejudice. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 33, pp. 41–113). San Diego: Academic Press.
Duckitt, J. (2006). Differential effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on outgroup attitudes and their mediation by threat from and competitiveness to outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
Duckitt, J., Bizumic, B., Krauss, S. W., & Heled, E. (2010). A tripartite approach to right-wing authoritarianism: The authoritarianism-conservatism-traditionalism model. Political Psychology,
Duckitt, J., & Sibley, C. G. (2009). A dual process motivational model of ideology, politics, and prejudice. Psychological Inquiry,
Duckitt, J., Wagner, C., du Plessis, I., & Birum, I. (2002). The psychological bases of ideology and prejudice: Testing a dual process model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Esses, V. M., Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Values, stereotypes, and emotions as determinants of intergroup attitudes. In D. M. Mackie & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 137–166). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Federico, C. M., & Sidanius, J. (2002). The antecedents and consequences of “principled objections” to affirmative action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Feldmen, S. (1988). Structure and consistency in public opinion: The role of core beliefs and values. American Journal of Political Science,
Fiske, S. T. (2004). Mind the gap: In praise of informal sources of formal theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review,
Gomez, B. T., & Wilson, M. J. (2006). Rethinking symbolic racism: Evidence of attribution bias. Journal of Politics,
Henry, P. J. (2008). College sophomores in the laboratory redux: Influences of a narrow data base on social psychology’s view of the nature of prejudice. Psychological Inquiry,
Henry, P. J., & Reyna, C. (2007). Value judgments: The impact of perceived value violations on political attitudes. Political Psychology,
Henry, P. J., & Sears, D. O. (2002). The symbolic racism 2000 scale. Political Psychology,
Hochschild, K. L. (1995). Facing up to the American dream: Race, class, and the soul of the nation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kinder, D. R., & Sears, D. O. (1981). Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Kuklinski, J. H., & Parent, W. (1981). Race and big government: Contamination in measuring racial attitudes. Political Methodology,
Lipset, S. M. (1996). American exceptionalism: A double-edged sword. New York: Norton.
MacKinnon, D. P., & Fairchild, A. J. (2009). Current directions in mediation analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science,
Margolis, M., & Hacque, K. E. (1981). Applied tolerance or fear of government? An alternative interpretation of Jackman’s findings. American Journal of Political Science,
McClendon, M. K. J. (1985). Racism, rational choice, and white opposition to racial change: A case study of busing. Public Opinion Quarterly,
McConahay, J. B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale. In J. Dovidio & S. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 91–126). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Monteith, M. J., & Spicer, V. C. (2000). Contents and correlates of Whites’ and Blacks’ racial attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,
Myrdal, G. (1998). An American dilemma. New York: Harper & Row. (Original work published 1944).
Pettigrew, T. F., & Meertens, R. W. (1995). Subtle and blatant prejudice in Western Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology,
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods,
Rabinowitz, J. L., Sears, D. O., Sidanius, J., & Krosnick, J. A. (2009). Why do White Americans oppose race-targeted policies? Clarifying the impact of symbolic racism. Political Psychology,
Reyna, C., Brandt, M., & Tendayi Viki, G. (2009). Blame it on hip-hop: Anti-rap attitudes as a proxy for prejudice. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations,
Reyna, C., Henry, P. J., Korfmacher, W., & Tucker, A. (2006). Examining the principles in principled conservatism: The role of responsibility stereotypes as cues for deservingness in racial policy decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Reyna, C., Tucker, A., Korfmacher, W., & Henry, P. J. (2005). Searching for common ground between supporters and opponents of affirmative action. Political Psychology,
Rucker, D. D., Preacher, K. J., Tormala, Z. L., & Petty, R. E. (2011). Mediation analysis in social psychology: Current practices and new recommendations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,
Sawires, J. N., & Peacock, M. J. (2000). Symbolic racism and voting behavior on Proposition 2091. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,
Schuman, H., Steeh, C., Bobo, L., & Krysan, M. (1997). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretations (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1985).
Sears, D. O. (1986). College sophomores in the laboratory: Influences of a narrow data base on social psychology’s view of human nature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Sears, D. O. (1988). Symbolic racism. In P. A. Katz & D. A. Taylor (Eds.), Eliminating racism: Profiles in controversy (pp. 53–84). New York: Plenum Press.
Sears, D. O., & Henry, P. J. (2003). The origins of symbolic racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Sears, D. O., & Henry, P. J. (2005). Over thirty years later: A contemporary look at symbolic racism. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology,
Sears, D. O., Henry, P. J., & Kosterman, R. (2000a). Egalitarian values and contemporary racial politics. In D. O. Sears, J. Sidanius, & L. Bobo (Eds.), Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America (pp. 75–117). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sears, D. O., & Jessor, T. (1996). Whites’ racial policy attitudes: The role of white racism. Social Science Quarterly,
Sears, D. O., Sidanius, J., & Bobo, L. (2000b). Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sears, D. O., van Laar, C., Carrillo, M., & Kosterman, R. (1997). Is it really racism? The origins of what American’s opposition to race-targeted policies. Public Opinion Quarterly,
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods,
Sibley, C. G., Robertson, A., & Wilson, M. S. (2006). Exploring the additive and interactive effects of social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism on prejudice and related intergroup attitudes. Political Psychology,
Sidanius, J., Devereux, E., & Pratto, F. (1992). A comparison of symbolic racism theory and social dominance theory as explanations for racial policy attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology,
Sidanius, J., Levin, S., Federico, C., & Pratto, F. (2001). Legitimizing ideologies: The social dominance approach. In J. Jost & B. Major (Eds.), The psychology of legitimacy: Emerging perspectives on ideology, justice, and intergroup relations (pp. 307–331). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sidanius, J., Levin, S., Rabinowtiz, J. L., & Federico, C. M. (1999). Peering into the jaws of the beast: The integrative dynamics of social identity, symbolic racism, and social dominance. In D. A. Prentice & D. T. Miller (Eds.), Cultural divides: Understanding and overcoming group conflict (pp. 80–132). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., & Bobo, L. (1996). Racism, conservatism, affirmative action, and intellectual sophistication: A matter of principled conservatism or group dominance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., & Kuklinski, J. H. (1984). Policy reasoning and political values: Problem of racial equality. American Journal of Political Science,
Sniderman, P. M., & Carmines, E. G. (1997). Reaching beyond race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sniderman, P. M., Crosby, G. C., & Howell, W. G. (2000). The politics of race. In D. O. Sears, J. Sidanius, & L. Bobo (Eds.), Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America (pp. 236–279). Chicago: University of Chicago.
Sniderman, P. M., & Tetlock, P. E. (1986a). Symbolic racism: Problems of motive attribution in political analysis. Journal of Social Issues,
Sniderman, P. M., & Tetlock, P. E. (1986b). Reflections on Americans racism. Journal of Social Issues,
Tarman, C., & Sears, D. O. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of symbolic racism. Journal of Politics,
Tetlock, P. E. (1994). Political psychology or politicized psychology: Is the road to scientific hell paved with good moral intentions? Political Psychology,
Wood, J. (1994). Is “symbolic racism” racism? A review informed by intergroup behavior. Political Psychology,