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Upflows in the Upper Solar Atmosphere

Invited Review

Abstract

Spectroscopic observations at extreme- and far-ultraviolet wavelengths have revealed systematic upflows in the solar transition region and corona. These upflows are best seen in the network structures of the quiet Sun and coronal holes, boundaries of active regions, and dimming regions associated with coronal mass ejections. They have been intensively studied in the past two decades because they are likely to be closely related to the formation of the solar wind and heating of the upper solar atmosphere. We present an overview of the characteristics of these upflows, introduce their possible formation mechanisms, and discuss their potential roles in the mass and energy transport in the solar atmosphere. Although past investigations have greatly improved our understanding of these upflows, they have left us with several outstanding questions and unresolved issues that should be addressed in the future. New observations from the Solar Orbiter mission, the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, and the Parker Solar Probe will likely provide critical information to advance our understanding of the generation, propagation, and energization of these upflows.

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Acknowledgments

H. Tian is supported by NSFC grants 11825301 and 11790304. The work of D.H. Brooks was performed under contract to the Naval Research Laboratory and was funded by the NASA Hinode program. D. Baker is funded under STFC consolidated grant number ST/S000240/1. L. Xia is supported by NSFC grants 41974201 and 41627806. H. Tian acknowledges support from the UCL-PKU strategic partner funds during his visit to MSSL. This invited review article is based partly on the AAS/SPD Karen Harvey Prize Lecture of 2020, the presentation file of which is available at spd.aas.org/prizes/harvey/previous.

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Tian, H., Harra, L., Baker, D. et al. Upflows in the Upper Solar Atmosphere. Sol Phys 296, 47 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-021-01792-7

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Keywords

  • Active regions, velocity field
  • Coronal holes
  • Coronal mass ejections, low coronal signatures
  • Heating, coronal
  • Spectral line, broadening