Solar Physics

, 294:54 | Cite as

Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycles 23 and 24: Sun–Earth Propagation Characteristics and Consequences at the Near-Earth Region

  • M. Syed IbrahimEmail author
  • Bhuwan Joshi
  • K.-S. Cho
  • R.-S. Kim
  • Y.-J. Moon


In this article, we present a statistical study probing the relation between interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed at 1 AU and their corresponding coronal mass ejections at the near-Sun region. The work encompasses the ICME activity that occurred during Solar Cycles 23 and 24 (1996 – 2017) while presenting an overall picture of ICME events during the complete Solar Cycle 24 for the first time. The importance of this study further lies in comparing two subsets of ICMEs, i.e. magnetic clouds (MCs) and ejecta (EJ), to explore how the observed structures of ICMEs at 1 AU could be associated with the properties of CMEs during their launch at the Sun. We find that, although Solar Cycle 24 saw a significant reduction in the number of ICME events compared to the previous cycle, the fraction of MCs was much higher during Cycle 24 than Cycle 23 (60% versus 41%). In general, the ICME transit-time decreases with the increase in the CME initial speed, although a broad range of transit times were observed for a given CME speed. We also find that the high-speed ICMEs (\({\gtrsim}\,500~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\)) form a distinct group in terms of the deficit in their transit times when compared with low-speed events (\({\lesssim}\, 500~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\)), which means that high-speed ICMEs acquire a much higher internal energy from the source active regions during the initiation process that effectively overcomes the aerodynamic drag force while they transit in the interplanetary medium. The CME propagation from the Sun to the near-Earth environment shows both an overall positive and negative acceleration (i.e. deceleration), although the acceleration is limited to only low-speed CMEs that are launched with a speed comparable with or less than the mean solar wind speed (\({\approx}\, 400\,\mbox{--}\,450~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\)). Within a given cycle, the similarities of MC and EJ profiles with respect to the CME–ICME speed relation as well as interplanetary acceleration support the hypothesis that all CMEs have a flux rope structure and that the trajectory of the CMEs essentially determines the observed ICME structure at 1 AU.


Coronal mass ejections Interplanetary coronal mass ejections Magnetic clouds Ejecta 



We gratefully acknowledge the catalog of “Near-Sun Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Since January 1996” compiled by Ian Richardson and Hilary Cane, which is the basis for the present study. The basic CME parameters were taken from the LASCO CME catalog. This CME catalog is generated and maintained at the CDAW Data Center by NASA and The Catholic University of America in cooperation with the Naval Research Laboratory. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. K.S.C and R.S.K acknowledge support from KASI basic research fund and the R&D program “Development of a Solar Coronagraph on the International Space Station (Project No. 2019-1-850-02) supervised by the Ministry of Science and ICT”. We sincerely thank the anonymous referee for providing constructive comments and suggestions, which have significantly enhanced the presentation and quality of the paper.

Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Burlaga, L.: 2001, Terminology of ejecta in solar wind. Eos Trans. AGU 82, 433. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burlaga, L., Sittler, E., Mariani, F., Schwenn, R.: 1981, Magnetic loop behind an interplanetary shock – Voyager, Helios, and IMP 8 observations. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6673. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burlaga, L.F., Skoug, R.M., Smith, C.W., Webb, D.F., Zurbuchen, T.H., Reinard, A.: 2001, Fast ejecta during the ascending phase of solar cycle 23: ACE observations, 1998 – 1999. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20957. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G.: 2003, Interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996 – 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1156. DOI. ADS. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, J.: 2017, Physics of erupting solar flux ropes: Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) – Recent advances in theory and observation. Phys. Plasmas 24(9), 090501. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cho, K.-S., Park, S.-H., Marubashi, K., Gopalswamy, N., Akiyama, S., Yashiro, S., Kim, R.-S., Lim, E.-K.: 2013, Comparison of helicity signs in interplanetary CMEs and their solar source regions. Solar Phys. 284, 105. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dere, K.P., Brueckner, G.E., Howard, R.A., Michels, D.J., Delaboudiniere, J.P.: 1999, LASCO and EIT observations of helical structure in coronal mass ejections. Astrophys. J. 516, 465. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Yashiro, S., Kaiser, M.L., Howard, R.A.: 2001, Predicting the 1-AU arrival times of coronal mass ejections. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 29207. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Xie, H., Akiyama, S., Mäkelä, P.: 2015, Properties and geoeffectiveness of magnetic clouds during solar cycles 23 and 24. J. Geophys. Res. 120, 9221. DOI. ADS. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gosling, J.T.: 1990, Coronal Mass Ejections and Magnetic Flux Ropes in Interplanetary Space, AGU Geophys. Monograph Ser. 58, 343. DOI. ADS. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johri, A., Manoharan, P.K.: 2016, An intense flare-CME event in 2015: Propagation and interaction effects between the Sun and Earth’s orbit. Solar Phys. 291, 1433. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim, R.-S., Gopalswamy, N., Cho, K.-S., Moon, Y.-J., Yashiro, S.: 2013, Propagation characteristics of CMEs associated with magnetic clouds and ejecta. Solar Phys. 284, 77. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Klein, L.W., Burlaga, L.F.: 1982, Interplanetary magnetic clouds at 1 AU. J. Geophys. Res. 87, 613. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Manoharan, P.K.: 2006, Evolution of coronal mass ejections in the inner heliosphere: A study using white-light and scintillation images. Solar Phys. 235, 345. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Manoharan, P.K.: 2010, Ooty interplanetary scintillation – Remote-sensing observations and analysis of coronal mass ejections in the heliosphere. Solar Phys. 265, 137. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Manoharan, P.K., Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Lara, A., Michalek, G., Howard, R.A.: 2004, Influence of coronal mass ejection interaction on propagation of interplanetary shocks. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A06109. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Manoharan, P.K., Maia, D., Johri, A., Induja, M.S.: 2016, Interplanetary consequences of coronal mass ejection events occurred during 18 – 25 June 2015. In: Dorotovic, I., Fischer, C.E., Temmer, M. (eds.) Coimbra Solar Physics Meeting: Ground-Based Solar Observations in the Space Instrumentation Era, Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Ser. 504, 59. ADS. Google Scholar
  18. Marubashi, K.: 2000, Physics of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes: Toward prediction of geomagnetic storms. Adv. Space Res. 26, 55. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marubashi, K., Akiyama, S., Yashiro, S., Gopalswamy, N., Cho, K.-S., Park, Y.-D.: 2015, Geometrical relationship between interplanetary flux ropes and their solar sources. Solar Phys. 290, 1371. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Michałek, G., Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Manoharan, P.K.: 2004, Arrival time of halo coronal mass ejections in the vicinity of the Earth. Astron. Astrophys. 423, 729. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2004, Identification of interplanetary coronal mass ejections at 1 AU using multiple solar wind plasma composition anomalies. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A09104. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmieder, B., Aulanier, G., Vršnak, B.: 2015, Flare-CME models: An observational perspective (invited review). Solar Phys. 290, 3457. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shanmugaraju, A., Vršnak, B.: 2014, Transit time of coronal mass ejections under different ambient solar wind conditions. Solar Phys. 289, 339. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Syed Ibrahim, M., Manoharan, P.K., Shanmugaraju, A.: 2017, Propagation of coronal mass ejections observed during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. Solar Phys. 292, 133. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Syed Ibrahim, M., Shanmugaraju, A., Bendict Lawrance, M.: 2015, Transit time of CME/shock associated with four major geo-effective CMEs in solar cycle 24. Adv. Space Res. 55, 407. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vršnak, B., Žic, T., Vrbanec, D., Temmer, M., Rollett, T., Möstl, C., Veronig, A., Čalogović, J., Dumbović, M., Lulić, S., Moon, Y.-J., Shanmugaraju, A.: 2013, Propagation of interplanetary coronal mass ejections: The drag-based model. Solar Phys. 285, 295. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Webb, D.F., Howard, T.A.: 2012, Coronal mass ejections: Observations. Living Rev. Solar Phys. 9, 3. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xie, H., Gopalswamy, N., St. Cyr, O.C.: 2013, Near-Sun flux-rope structure of CMEs. Solar Phys. 284, 47. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zurbuchen, T.H., Richardson, I.G.: 2006, In-situ solar wind and magnetic field signatures of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Space Sci. Rev. 123, 31. DOI. ADS. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Research LaboratoryUdaipur Solar ObservatoryUdaipurIndia
  2. 2.Korea Astronomy and Space Science InstituteDaejeonSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Astronomy and Space ScienceUniversity of Science and TechnologyDaejeonSouth Korea
  4. 4.School of Space ResearchKyung Hee UniversityYonginSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations