Solar Physics

, 293:70 | Cite as

Catalogue of \({>}\,55\) MeV Wide-longitude Solar Proton Events Observed by SOHO, ACE, and the STEREOs at \({\approx}\,1\) AU During 2009 – 2016

  • Miikka Paassilta
  • Athanasios Papaioannou
  • Nina Dresing
  • Rami Vainio
  • Eino Valtonen
  • Bernd Heber


Based on energetic particle observations made at \({\approx}\,1\) AU, we present a catalogue of 46 wide-longitude (\({>}\,45^{\circ}\)) solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected at multiple locations during 2009 – 2016. The particle kinetic energies of interest were chosen as \({>}\,55\) MeV for protons and 0.18 – 0.31 MeV for electrons. We make use of proton data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron Experiment (SOHO/ERNE) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/High Energy Telescopes (STEREO/HET), together with electron data from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (ACE/EPAM) and the STEREO/Solar Electron and Proton Telescopes (SEPT). We consider soft X-ray data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and coronal mass ejection (CME) observations made with the SOHO/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and STEREO/Coronagraphs 1 and 2 (COR1, COR2) to establish the probable associations between SEP events and the related solar phenomena. Event onset times and peak intensities are determined; velocity dispersion analysis (VDA) and time-shifting analysis (TSA) are performed for protons; TSA is performed for electrons. In our event sample, there is a tendency for the highest peak intensities to occur when the observer is magnetically connected to solar regions west of the flare. Our estimates for the mean event width, derived as the standard deviation of a Gaussian curve modelling the SEP intensities (protons \({\approx}\,44^{\circ}\), electrons \({\approx}\,50^{\circ}\)), largely agree with previous results for lower-energy SEPs. SEP release times with respect to event flares, as well as the event rise times, show no simple dependence on the observer’s connection angle, suggesting that the source region extent and dominant particle acceleration and transport mechanisms are important in defining these characteristics of an event. There is no marked difference between the speed distributions of the CMEs related to wide events and the CMEs related to all near-Earth SEP events of similar energy range from the same time period.


Energetic particles, protons Energetic particles, electrons Flares, energetic particles Coronal mass ejections 



The research described in this paper was supported by ESA contract 4000120480/17/NL/LF/hh. M. Paassilta and R. Vainio acknowledge the funding from Academy of Finland (decisions 267186 and 297395). N. Dresing and B. Heber acknowledge the funding from Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD 57247608) and the STEREO/SEPT, Chandra/EPHIN and SOHO/EPHIN project which is supported under grant 50OC1702 by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the basis of a decision by the German Bundestag. We would like to acknowledge and express our gratitude to the organizations and teams responsible for maintaining the data sources used in this article (SEPServer, CDAW SOHO LASCO CME Catalog, SolarSoft Latest Events Archive, NOAA/Solar-Terrestrial Physics at the National Centers for Environmental Information, Coordinated Data Analysis Web, and the ACE Science Center). CDAW SOHO LASCO CME Catalog: this CME catalog is generated and maintained at the CDAW Data Center by NASA and The Catholic University of America in cooperation with the Naval Research Laboratory. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. The Radio Monitoring website: this survey is generated and maintained at the Observatoire de Paris by the LESIA UMR CNRS 8109 in cooperation with the Artemis team, Universities of Athens and Ioanina and the Naval Research Laboratory. The STEREO/SECCHI/COR2 CME catalog (the Dual-Viewpoint CME Catalog from the SECCHI/COR Telescopes): this catalogue is generated and maintained at JHU/APL, in collaboration with the NRL and GSFC, and is supported by NASA.

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS)National Observatory of AthensPenteliGreece
  3. 3.Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte PhysikChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielGermany

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