Solar Physics

, Volume 291, Issue 12, pp 3817–3830 | Cite as

North–South Asymmetry of Solar Diurnal Variations of Cosmic-Ray Intensity Throughout the Period 1975 – 2013

  • M. A. El-Borie
  • A. A. Abdel-halim
  • S. Y. El-MonierEmail author
  • A. A. Bishara


Hourly cosmic-ray intensities, recorded by 15 neutron monitor detectors in both Earth hemispheres, have been analyzed according to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity sense (Toward (T) or Away (A)) to examine the asymmetry of solar diurnal variations (amplitudes and phases) during the time interval from 1975 to 2013. The vertical geomagnetic cut-off rigidity of these detectors is \(R_{\mathrm{o}} \leq 13~\mbox{GV}\). Previously, the north–south asymmetries of cosmic-ray intensity, between the northern and southern sectors with respect to the neutral sheet, have been studied for different periods to give an explanation as regards the cosmic ray flow in the direction parallel to the rotation axis of the Earth. The observed cosmic ray asymmetries between the two sectors were related to a corresponding N–S asymmetry of solar activity. Our results showed that during the years of minima and maxima solar activity cycles, asymmetric of latitudinal southward or northward gradients have been observed at both hemispheres. In addition, the southward and northward cosmic ray latitudinal gradients were frequently observed at stations on both hemispheres during the active period of the northern and/or southern hemispheres of the Sun. On the other hand, the differences in the solar diurnal (T–A) vectors show that the time of maximum depends on latitude at the point of observation. In addition, when the interplanetary magnetic field IMF was directed away from the Sun north of the current sheet, the northern solar diurnal vectors (T–A) shifted to later hours. Moreover, when the solar magnetic field is reversed, the phase of solar diurnal (T–A) vectors changed from 1 to 11 h, and from 3 to 9 h for northern and southern observations, respectively.


Interplanetary magnetic field polarities Sunspot areas North–South asymmetry of solar diurnal variations Latitudinal gradients of cosmic-rays Solar activity cycles 



Data for all cosmic ray stations were collected via the WDC & IZMIRAN data center, Russia. We are very grateful to the National Space Science Data Center (NASA) for the hourly IMF data and for making the interplanetary data available online. We are very thankful to the referees for their valuable comments and suggestions.

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. El-Borie
    • 1
  • A. A. Abdel-halim
    • 2
  • S. Y. El-Monier
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. A. Bishara
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime TransportAlexandriaEgypt

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