The Solar Rotation in the Period 1853 – 1870 from the Sunspot Catalogues of Carrington, Peters, and de la Rue
R.C. Carrington, C.H.F. Peters, and W. de la Rue observed the sunspots in the second half of the nineteenth century, determining their heliographic positions between 1853 and 1870, before the solar program of the Royal Greenwich Observatory was established. The large tables of sunspot positions included in the catalogues published by these observers have recently been converted into a machine-readable format. The present work analyses these data by calculating the sunspot group velocities for each observer. The results are then fitted with a differential-rotation law to compare the data of the three observers with each other and with the results published by others. Finally, we study the possible relationship between the sunspot-group areas as determined by de la Rue and the corresponding sunspot-group velocities.
KeywordsRotation Solar cycle, observations Sunspots, velocity
Ricard Casas acknowledges financial support received from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN), project AYA2012-39620, Consolider-Ingenio CSD2007-00060, and research project 2009SGR1398 from the Generalitat de Catalunya. José M. Vaquero acknowledges financial support from the Junta de Extremadura (Research Group Grant No. GR10131), from the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of the Spanish Government (AYA2011-25945), and from the COST Action ES1005 TOSCA .
Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Carrington, R.C.: 1863, Observations of the spots on the Sun from November 9, 1853, to March 24, 1861 made at Redhill, Williams and Norgate, London. https://archive.org/details/observationsofsp00carr. Google Scholar
- Fabricius, J.: 1611, Maculis in Sole observatis et apparent earum cum Sole conversione, narrati, Wittenberga. http://www.e-rara.ch/doi/10.3931/e-rara-453.
- Galilei, G.: 1613, Istoria e Dimostrazioni Intorno Alle Macchie Solari e Loro Accidenti, Rome. ADS.
- Hevelius, J.: 1647, Selenographia, Gdansk. Google Scholar
- Peters, C.H.F.: 1907, Heliographic Positions of Sun-Spots Observed at Hamilton College from 1860 to 1870, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
- Scheiner, C.: 1630, Rosa Ursina, Bracciano. Google Scholar
- Shirley, J.W.: 1983, Thomas Harriot: A Biography, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Google Scholar
- Spörer, G.: 1874, Publ. Astronom. Gesell. XIII. Beobachtungen der Sonnenflecken zu Anclam, In commission bei Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. Google Scholar