Solar Physics

, Volume 290, Issue 8, pp 2189–2198 | Cite as

The Solar Rotation in the Period 1853 – 1870 from the Sunspot Catalogues of Carrington, Peters, and de la Rue

  • R. CasasEmail author
  • J. M. Vaquero


R.C. Carrington, C.H.F. Peters, and W. de la Rue observed the sunspots in the second half of the nineteenth century, determining their heliographic positions between 1853 and 1870, before the solar program of the Royal Greenwich Observatory was established. The large tables of sunspot positions included in the catalogues published by these observers have recently been converted into a machine-readable format. The present work analyses these data by calculating the sunspot group velocities for each observer. The results are then fitted with a differential-rotation law to compare the data of the three observers with each other and with the results published by others. Finally, we study the possible relationship between the sunspot-group areas as determined by de la Rue and the corresponding sunspot-group velocities.


Rotation Solar cycle, observations Sunspots, velocity 



Ricard Casas acknowledges financial support received from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN), project AYA2012-39620, Consolider-Ingenio CSD2007-00060, and research project 2009SGR1398 from the Generalitat de Catalunya. José M. Vaquero acknowledges financial support from the Junta de Extremadura (Research Group Grant No. GR10131), from the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of the Spanish Government (AYA2011-25945), and from the COST Action ES1005 TOSCA .

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


  1. Abarbanell, C., Wöhl, H.: 1981, Solar Phys. 70, 197. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Arlt, R.: 2011, Astron. Nachr. 332, 805. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Arlt, R., Fröhlich, R.: 2012, Astron. Astrophys. 543, 7A. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Arlt, R., Leussu, R., Giese, N., Mursula, K., Usoskin, I.G.: 2013, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 433, 3165. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Balthasar, H., Vázquez, M., Woehl, H.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 155, 87. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Çakmak, H.: 2014, Exp. Astron. 38, 77. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrasco, V.M.S., Vaquero, J.M., Aparicio, A.J.P., Gallego, M.C.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289, 4351. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrington, R.C.: 1863, Observations of the spots on the Sun from November 9, 1853, to March 24, 1861 made at Redhill, Williams and Norgate, London. Google Scholar
  9. Casas, R., Vaquero, J.M., Vázquez, M.: 2006, Solar Phys. 234, 379. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Casas, R., Vaquero, J.M.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289, 79. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Clette, F.: 2011, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 73, 182. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Cristo, J.M., Vaquero, J.M., Sánchez-Bajo, F.: 2011, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 73, 187. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. de la Rue, W., Steward, B., Loewy, B.: 1869, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 159, 1. ADS. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de la Rue, W., Steward, B., Loewy, B.: 1870, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 160, 389. ADS. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eddy, J.: 1976, Science 192, 1189. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Eddy, J., Gilman, P.A., Trotter, D.E.: 1977, Science 198, 824. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Fabricius, J.: 1611, Maculis in Sole observatis et apparent earum cum Sole conversione, narrati, Wittenberga.
  18. Galilei, G.: 1613, Istoria e Dimostrazioni Intorno Alle Macchie Solari e Loro Accidenti, Rome. ADS.
  19. Giorgini, J.D., Yeomans, D.K., Chamberlin, A.B., Chodas, P.W., Jacobson, R.A., Keesey, M.S., Lieske, J.H., Ostro, S.J., Standish, E.M., Wimberly, R.N.: 1996, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 28, 1158. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta, S.S., Sivaraman, K.R., Howard, R.F.: 1999, Solar Phys. 188, 225. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Hathaway, D.H.: 2013, Solar Phys. 286, 347. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Herr, R.B.: 1978, Science 202, 1079. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Herr, R.B.: 1980, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 12, 504. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Hevelius, J.: 1647, Selenographia, Gdansk. Google Scholar
  25. Howard, R., Gilman, P.I., Gilman, P.A.: 1984, Astrophys. J. 283, 373. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Hržina, D., Roša, D., Hanslmeier, A., Ruždjak, V., Brajša, R.: 2007, Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. 31, 273. ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Lefevre, L., Clette, F.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289, 545. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Lepshokov, D.K., Tlatov, A.G., Vasil’eva, V.V.: 2012, Int. J. Geomagn. Aeron. 52(7), 843. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Nesme-Ribes, E., Ferreira, E.N., Mein, P.: 1993, Astron. Astrophys. 274, 563. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Newton, H.W., Nunn, M.L.: 1951, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 111, 413. ADS. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Peters, C.H.F.: 1907, Heliographic Positions of Sun-Spots Observed at Hamilton College from 1860 to 1870, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  32. Poljančić, I., Brajša, R., Ruždjak, V., Hržina, D., Jurdana-Šepić, R., Wöhl, H., Otruba, W.: 2010, Sun Geosph. 5 52. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Poljančić, I., Brajša, R., Hržina, D., Wöhl, H., Hanslmeier, A., Pötzi, W., et al.: 2011, Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. 35, 59. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Pulkkinen, P., Tuominen, I.: 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 332, 748. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Ribes, E., Ribes, J.C., Barthalot, R.: 1987, Nature 326, 52. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Ribes, J.C., Nesme-Ribes, E.: 1993, Astron. Astrophys. 276, 549. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Sakurai, K.: 1980, J. Hist. Astron. 11, 164. ADS. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Sánchez-Bajo, F., Vaquero, J.M., Gallego, M.C.: 2010, Solar Phys. 261, 1. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Scheiner, C.: 1630, Rosa Ursina, Bracciano. Google Scholar
  40. Shirley, J.W.: 1983, Thomas Harriot: A Biography, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Google Scholar
  41. Spörer, G.: 1874, Publ. Astronom. Gesell. XIII. Beobachtungen der Sonnenflecken zu Anclam, In commission bei Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. Google Scholar
  42. Sudar, D., Skokić, I., Ruždjak, D., Brajša, R., Wöhl, H.: 2014, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 439(3), 2377. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Tang, F.: 1981, Solar Phys. 69, 399. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Vaquero, J.M., Sánchez-Bajo, F., Gallego, M.C.: 2002, Solar Phys. 207, 219. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Vaquero, J.M., Gordillo, A., Gallego, M.C., Sánchez-Bajo, F., García, J.A.: 2005, Observatory 125, 152. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Vaquero, J.M., Vázquez, M.: 2009, The Sun Recorded Through History, Astrophys. Space Science Lib. 361, Springer, New York. ADS. Google Scholar
  47. Vaquero, J.M., Trigo, R.M.: 2015, New Astron. 34, 120. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Ward, F.: 1966, Astrophys. J. 145, 416. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Willis, D.M., Coffey, H.E., Henwood, R., Erwin, E.H., Hoyt, D.V., Wild, M.N., Denig, W.F.: 2013, Solar Phys. 288, 117. ADS.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Yallop, B.D., Hohenkerk, C., Murdin, L., Clark, D.H.: 1982, Q. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 23, 213. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Zappala, R.A., Zuccarello, F.: 1991, Astron. Astrophys. 242, 480. ADS. ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (IEEC–CSIC)Campus UABCerdanyola del VallèsSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Física, Centro Universitario de MéridaUniversidad de ExtremaduraMéridaSpain

Personalised recommendations