Cosmic Ray 11-Year Modulation for Sunspot Cycle 24
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Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) modulation at 1 AU for sunspot (SSN) Cycle 24 is studied using data from a global network of detectors and balloon measurements of low-energy ions at high latitudes in Russia. The observed modulation is modest compared with previous cycles. The tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet reached a maximum value for Cycle 24 even though the peak of the interplanetary magnetic-field intensity at 1 AU has a much lower value (≈ 5 nT). The solar polar field in the northern hemisphere reversed in June 2012 and again in March 2014 while that in the southern hemisphere reversed in July 2013. The double field reversal in northern hemisphere after SSN maximum is not expected from dynamo theory. GCR modulation is at maximum phase in 2013. We have also studied the anomalous GCR recovery in 2009 using data from a low-energy proton channel on Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA). The rigidity dependence of the Cycle 24 modulation is computed using data from neutron monitors, directional muon telescopes at Nagoya, Japan, and detectors on balloons at high latitudes in Russia. It is a power law with an exponent −1.29, similar to previous solar cycles (−1.2±0.1); the nearly linear dependence of the modulation on the rigidity over a wide range poses a challenge to the quasi-linear theory (QLT) of GCR modulation.
KeywordsSunspots Cycle 24 Galactic cosmic rays Modulation
We thank the providers of the solar, interplanetary, and cosmic-ray data used in this study and the referee for diligence. The US National Science Foundation supports the global network of neutron monitors (MM, NE) operated by the Bartol Institute under grants ANT-0739620 and ANT-0838839. Galina Bazilevskaya supplied the balloon measurements of low-energy GCR ions at polar latitudes in Russia and the PAMELA satellite data.
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