Active Region Coronal Rain Event Observed by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph on the NST

Abstract

The Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) is being operated on the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory. It simultaneously records spectra of Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å lines, and this dual-spectra measurement provides an estimate of the temperature and nonthermal speed components. We observed a loop structure in AR 11305 using the FISS, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI in 304 Å, and found plasma material falling along the loop from a coronal height into the umbra of a sunspot, which accelerated up to 80 km s−1. We also observed C2 and C7 flare events near the loop. The temperature of the downflows was in the range of 10 000 – 33 000 K, increasing toward the umbra. The temperature of the flow varied with time, and the temperature near the footpoint rose immediately after the C7 flare, but the temperature toward the umbra remained the same. There seemed to be a temporal correlation between the amount of downflow material and the observed C-class flares. The downflows decreased gradually soon after the flares and then increased after a few hours. These high-speed red-shift events occurred continuously during the observations. The flows observed on-disk in Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å appeared as fragmented, fuzzy condensed material falling from the coronal heights when seen off-limb with STEREO/EUVI at 304 Å. Based on these observations, we propose that these flows were an on-disk signature of coronal rain.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14

References

  1. Ahn, K., Chae, J., Park, H.-M., Nah, J., Park, Y.-D., Jang, B.-H., Moon, Y.-J.: 2008, J. Korean Astron. Soc. 41, 31.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Antiochos, S.K., MacNeice, P.J., Spicer, P.J., Klimchuk, J.A.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 512, 985.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Antolin, P., Rouppe van der Voort, L.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 745, 152.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Antolin, P., Shibata, K., Vissers, G.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 716, 154.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Antolin, P., Vissers, G., Rouppe van der Voort, L.: 2012, Solar Phys. 280, 457.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Beckers, J.M.: 1962, Aust. J. Phys. 15, 327.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Beckers, J.M.: 1964, A study of the fine structures in the solar chromosphere, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Utrecht.

  8. Cao, W., Gorceix, N., Coulter, R., Ahn, K., Rimmele, T.R., Goode, P.R.: 2010, Astron. Nachr. 331, 636.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Chae, J., Park, H.-M., Ahn, K., Yang, H., Park, Y.-D., Nah, J., Jang, B.-H., Cho, K.-S., Cao, W., Goode, P.R.: 2013, Solar Phys. 288, 1.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. de Groof, A., Bastiaensen, C., Müller, D.A.N., Berghmans, D., Poedts, S.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 443, 319.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. del Toro Iniesta, J.C., Bellot Rubio, L.R., Collados, M.: 2001, Astrophys. J. Lett. 549, L139.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Dialetis, D., Mein, P., Alissandrakis, C.E.: 1985, Astron. Astrophys. 147, 93.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. Field, G.B.: 1965, Astrophys. J. 142, 531.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Foukal, P.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 223, 1046.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Georgakilas, A.A., Christopoulou, E.B., Skodras, A., Koutchmy, S.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 403, 1123.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Goldsmith, D.W.: 1971, Solar Phys. 19, 86.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Goode, P.R., Denker, C.J., Didkovsky, L.I., Kuhn, J.R., Wang, H.: 2003, J. Korean Astron. Soc. 36, 125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Habbal, S.R., Ronan, R., Withbroe, G.L.: 1985, Solar Phys. 98, 323.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hasan, S.S., Schuessler, M.: 1985, Astron. Astrophys. 151, 69.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. Heinzel, P., Anzer, U.: 2006, Astrophys. J. Lett. 643, L65.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Heinzel, P., Gouttebroze, P., Vial, J.-C.: 1994, Astron. Astrophys. 292, 656.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. Ichimoto, K., Shine, R.A., Lites, B., Kubo, M., Shimizu, T., Suematsu, Y., et al.: 2007, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 59, 593.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  23. Kawaguchi, I.: 1970, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 22, 405.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  24. Lemen, J.R., Title, A.M., Akin, D.J., Boerner, P.F., Chou, C., Drake, J.F., et al.: 2012, Solar Phys. 275, 17.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Leroy, J.-L.: 1972, Solar Phys. 25, 413.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Louis, R.E., Bellot Rubio, L.R., Mathew, S.K., Venkatakrishnan, P.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 727, 49.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mein, P., Briand, C., Heinzel, P., Mein, N.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. 355, 1146.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  28. Müller, D.A.N., Hansteen, V.H., Peter, H.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 411, 605.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Müller, D.A.N., Peter, H., Hansteen, V.H.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 424, 289.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Narain, U., Ulmschneider, P.: 1990, Space Sci. Rev. 54, 377.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Nicolas, K.R., Kjeldseth-Moe, O.: 1981, In: Cram, L.E., Thomas, J.H. (eds.) The Physics of Sunspots, National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, 336.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Parker, E.N.: 1953, Astrophys. J. 117, 431.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Schrijver, C.J.: 2001, Solar Phys. 198, 325.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Tziotziou, K., Heinzel, P., Mein, P., Mein, N.: 2001, Astron. Astrophys. 366, 686.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Vardavas, I.M., Cram, L.E.: 1974, Solar Phys. 38, 367.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Vissers, G., Rouppe van der Voort, L.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 750, 22.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Wallace, L., Hinkle, K., Livingston, W.C.: 1993, An Atlas of the Photospheric Spectrum from 8900 to 13 600 cm−1 (7350 to 11 230 Å), National Solar Observatory, Tucson.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Wallace, L., Hinkle, K., Livingston, W.: 1998, An Atlas of the Spectrum of the Solar Photosphere from 13 500 to 28 000 cm−1 (3570 to 7405 Å). National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Wang, H., Chae, J., Gurman, J.B., Kucera, T.A.: 1998, Solar Phys. 183, 91.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the referee for many critical comments, which improved this manuscript considerably. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (355-2012-1-2012R1A6A3A03039815 and 2012R1A2A1A03670387). K. Ahn and W. Cao gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF-CAREER through ATM-0847126.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kwangsu Ahn.

Additional information

Initial Results from FISS

Topical Issue Coordinator: Jongchul Chae

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below are the links to the electronic supplementary material.

Movie 1 (MP4 4.2 MB)

Movie 2 (MP4 9.7 MB)

11207_2014_559_MOESM3_ESM.mp4

Movie 3 (MP4 767 kB)

Movie 3 (MP4 767 kB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ahn, K., Chae, J., Cho, KS. et al. Active Region Coronal Rain Event Observed by the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph on the NST. Sol Phys 289, 4117–4136 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-014-0559-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Active regions
  • Chromosphere
  • Coronal rain
  • Spectroscopic observations