May 2005 Halo CMEs and Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux Changes at Earth’s Orbit
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The pressure corrected hourly data from the global network of cosmic ray detectors, measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) intensity (B) at Earth’s orbit and its components B x , B y , B z (in the geocentric solar ecliptic coordinates) are used to conduct a comprehensive study of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity fluctuations caused by the halo coronal mass ejection of 13 May 2005. Distinct differences exist in GCR timelines recorded by neutron monitors (NMs) and multidirectional muon telescopes (MTs), the latter respond to the high rigidity portion of the GCR differential rigidity spectrum. The Forbush decrease (FD) onset in MTs is delayed (∼5 h) with respect to the onset of a geomagnetic storm sudden commencement (SSC) and a large pre-increase is present in MT data before, during, and after the SSC onset, of unknown origin. The rigidity spectrum, for a range of GCR rigidities (≤200 GV), is a power law in rigidity (R) with a negative exponent (γ=−1.05) at GCR minimum intensity, leading us to infer that the quasi-linear theory of modulation is inconsistent with observations at high rigidities (>1 GV); the results support the force field theory of modulation. At present, we do not have a comprehensive model for the FD explaining quantitatively all the observational features but we present a preliminary model listing physical processes that may contribute to a FD timeline. We explored the connections between different phases of the FD and the power spectra of IMF components but did not find a sustained relationship.
KeywordsCoronal mass ejection Cosmic rays Forbush decrease Rigidity-dependence
We are very grateful to the providers of the solar, interplanetary, neutron monitor, and geomagnetic data used in this study. Kazuoki Munakata provided the multidirectional muon telescope data from Hobart and Marc Duldig, the directional muon telescope data (deep underground) at Mawson. The referee made helpful comments.
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