Skip to main content

Spectroscopic Coronal Observations During the Total Solar Eclipse of 11 July 2010

Abstract

The flash spectra of the solar chromosphere and corona were measured with a slitless spectrograph before, after, and during the totality of the solar eclipse of 11 July 2010, at Easter Island, Chile. This eclipse took place at the beginning of Solar Cycle 24, after an extended minimum of solar activity. The spectra taken during the eclipse show a different intensity ratio of the red and green coronal lines compared with those taken during the total solar eclipse of 1 August 2008, which took place toward the end of Solar Cycle 23. The characteristic coronal emission line of forbidden Fe xiv (5303 Å) was observed on the east and west solar limbs in four areas relatively symmetrically located with respect to the solar rotation axis. Subtraction of the continuum flash-spectrum background led to the identification of several extremely weak emission lines, including forbidden Ca xv (5694 Å), which is normally detected only in regions of very high excitation, e.g., during flares or above large sunspots. The height of the chromosphere was measured spectrophotometrically, using spectral lines from light elements and compared with the equivalent height of the lower chromosphere measured using spectral lines from heavy elements.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. BASS2000: http://bass2000.obspm.fr/download/solar_spect.pdf .

  2. Bazin, C., Koutchmy, S., Tavabi, E.: 2011, The He i and He ii chromospheric shells and the transition region. In: Damé, L., Hady, A. (eds.) Internat. Assoc. Geomag. Aeronomy Symp. 2 Solar Wind – Space Environment Interaction, Cairo Univ. Press, Cairo, 19. doi: 10.1012/S120027852004 .

    Google Scholar 

  3. Buil, C.: 2011, http://astrosurf.com/buil/us/spectro11/specalib.htm .

  4. Chevalier, R., Lambert, D.: 1970, The excitation of the forbidden coronal lines II: [Ca XV] λλ5694 and 5446. Solar Phys. 11, 243 – 257.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cieslinski, D., Diaz, M.P., Steiner, J.E.: 1999, A spectroscopic study of V617 Sagittarii. Astron. J. 117, 534 – 540.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cillié, G.G., Menzel, D.H.: 1935, Physical state of the solar corona, Harvard Circ., 410

  7. Curtis, G.W., Dunn, R.B., Orrall, F.Q.: 1965, The coronal emission spectrum during the solar eclipse of May 30 1965. In: 1965 Solar Eclipse Symposium, NASA, Amers, 137.

    Google Scholar 

  8. De Castro, E., Morandi, C.: 1987, Registration of translated and rotated images using finite Fourier transform. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9(5), 700 – 703.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Dere, K., Bartoe, D., Brueckner, G.: 1984, High-resolution telescope and spectrograph observations of the quiet solar chromosphere and transition zone. Astrophys. J. 281, 870 – 883.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Druckmüller, M.: 2009, Phase correlation method for the alignment of total solar eclipse images. Astrophys. J. 706, 1605 – 1608.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Druckmüller, M., Rušin, V., Minarovjech, M.: 2006, A new numerical method of total solar eclipse photography processing. Contrib. Astron. Obs. Skalnaté Pleso 36, 131 – 148.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. Dunn, R.B., Evans, J.W., Jefferies, J.T., Orrall, F.Q., White, O.R., Zirker, J.B.: 1968, The chromospheric spectrum at the 1962 eclipse. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 15, 275 – 421.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Espenak, F., Anderson, J.: 2008, Annular and total solar eclipses of 2010, TP-2008-214171, NASA, Greenbelt.

  14. Gibson, E.G.: 1973, The Quiet Sun SP-303, NASA, Washington.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Golub, L., Pasachoff, J.M.: 2010, The Solar Corona, 2nd edn., Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Habbal, S.R., Druckmüller, M., Morgan, H., Daw, A., Johnson, J., Ding, A., Arndt, M., Esser, R., Rušin, V., Scholl, I.: 2010, Mapping the distribution of electron temperature and Fe charge states in the corona with total solar eclipse observations. Astrophys. J. 708, 1650 – 1662.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Hirayama, T., Makoto, I.: 1984, Line width observation of He i 4713 Å and He ii 4686 Å in the chromosphere. Solar Phys. 90, 291 – 302.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Jefferies, J.J., Orrall, F.W., Zirker, J.B.: 1970, The spectrum of the inner corona during the total solar eclipse of 30 May 1965. Solar Phys. 16(1), 103 – 110.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Jubier, X.: 2010, http://xjubier.free.fr/en/site_pages/Solar_Eclipses.html .

  20. Kubát, J., Saad, S.M., Kawka, A., Nouh, M.I., Iliev, L., Uytterhoeven, K., Korčáková, D., Hadrava, P., Škoda, P., Votruba, V., Dovčiak, M., Šlechta, M.: 2010, Spectroscopic analysis of the B/Be visual binary HR 1847. Astron. Astrophys. 520, A103.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Mariska, J.T.: 1992, The Solar Transition Region, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Mazzotta, G., Mazzitelli, G., Colafrancesco, S., Vittorio, N.: 1998, Ionization balance for optically thin plasmas: rate coefficients for all atoms and ions of the elements H to Ni. Astron. Astrophys. 133, 403 – 409.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  23. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/levels_form.html .

  24. Pasachoff, J.M.: 2009a, Solar eclipses as an astrophysical laboratory. Nature 459, 789 – 795. doi: 10.1038/nature07987 .

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Pasachoff, J.M.: 2009b, Scientific observations at total solar eclipses. Res. Astron. Astrophys. 9, 613 – 634.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Pasachoff, J.M.: 2010, Resource letter SP-1 on solar physics. Am. J. Phys. 78, 890 – 901.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Pasachoff, J.M.: 2011, Is the sunspot cycle about to stop? http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/123844859.html .

  28. Pasachoff, J.M., MacRobert, A.: 2011, Is the sunspot cycle about to stop? Sky Tell. 22(3), 12 – 13.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Pasachoff, J.M., Suer, T.-A.: 2010, The origin and diffusion of the H and K notation. J. Astron. Hist. Herit. 13(2), 121 – 127.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  30. Pasachoff, J.M., Sandford, M.T. II, Keller, C.F. Jr.: 1978, Infrared observations of the 1977 total solar eclipse. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 10, 431.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. Pasachoff, J.M., Rušin, V., Druckmüllerová, H., Saniga, M., Lu, M., Malamut, C., Seaton, D.B., Golub, L., Engell, A.J., Hill, S.W., Lucas, R.: 2011a, Structure and dynamics of the 11 July 2010 eclipse white-light corona. Astrophys. J. 734, 114 – 123.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Pasachoff, J.M., Rušin, V., Saniga, M., Druckmüllerová, H., Babcock, B.A.: 2011b, Structure and dynamics of the 22 July 2009 eclipse white-light corona. Astrophys. J. 742, 29 – 42.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Reddy, B.S., Chatterji, B.N.: 1996, An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant image registration. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5, 1266 – 1271.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Sandlin, G., Brueckner, G., Tousey, R.: 1977, Forbidden lines of the solar corona and transition zone 975 – 3000 Å. Astrophys. J. 214, 898 – 904.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Singh, J., Sakurai, T., Ichimoto, K., Suematsu, Y., Takeda, A.: 2002, Spectroscopic studies of the solar corona. II. Properties of green and red emission lines in open and closed coronal structures. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 54, 793 – 806.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  36. Singh, J., Ichimoto, K., Sakurai, T., Muneer, S.: 2003, Spectroscopic studies of the solar corona. IV. Physical properties of coronal structure. Astrophys. J. 585, 516 – 523.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Singh, J., Hasan, S., Gupta, G., Nagaraju, K., Banerjee, D.: 2011, Spectroscopic observation of oscillations in the corona during the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009. Solar Phys. 270, 213 – 233.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Steiner, J.E., Cieslinski, D., Jablonski, F.J., Williams, R.E.: 1999, The photometric and spectroscopic characterization of the V Sagittae star V617 Sagittarii. Astron. Astrophys. 351, 1021 – 1027.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  39. Takeda, A., Kurokawa, H., Kitai, R., Ishiura, K.: 2000, Contribution and properties of the green- and red-line coronal loops in the K-corona. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 52, 375 – 391 and Plates 29 – 39.

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  40. Voulgaris, A., Athanasiadis, T., Seiradakis, J.H., Pasachoff, J.M.: 2010, A comparison of the red and green coronal line intensities at the 29 March 2006 and the 1 August 2008 total solar eclipses: Considerations of the temperature of the solar corona. Solar Phys. 264(1), 45 – 55.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Wagner, W., House, L.: 1968, A survey of current coronal visible line identifications. Solar Phys. 5, 55 – 60.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. M. Pasachoff.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Voulgaris, A.G., Gaintatzis, P.S., Seiradakis, J.H. et al. Spectroscopic Coronal Observations During the Total Solar Eclipse of 11 July 2010. Sol Phys 278, 187–202 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-012-9929-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Eclipses
  • Corona
  • Chromosphere’s height
  • Continuum background
  • Ionized iron
  • Lower chromosphere
  • Continuum subtraction