The Wave-Front Correction System for the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Solar Observatory

Abstract

This paper describes the wave-front correction system developed for the Sunrise balloon telescope, and it provides information about its in-flight performance. For the correction of low-order aberrations, a Correlating Wave-Front Sensor (CWS) was used. It consisted of a six-element Shack – Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS), a fast tip-tilt mirror for the compensation of image motion, and an active telescope secondary mirror for focus correction. The CWS delivered a stabilized image with a precision of 0.04 arcsec (rms), whenever the coarse pointing was better than ± 45 arcsec peak-to-peak. The automatic focus adjustment maintained a focus stability of 0.01 waves in the focal plane of the CWS. During the 5.5 day flight, good image quality and stability were achieved during 33 hours, containing 45 sequences, which lasted between 10 and 45 min.

References

  1. Barthol, P., Gandorfer, A., Solanki, S.K., Schüssler, M., Chares, B., Curdt, W., et al.: 2010, Solar Phys. doi: 10.1007/s11207-010-9662-9 .

    Google Scholar 

  2. Berkefeld, T.: 2007, In: Kneer, F., Puschmann, K.G., Wittmann, A.D. (eds.) Solar Facilities – Advanced Solar Science, Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen, 107.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Gandorfer, A., Grauf, B., Barthol, P., Riethmüller, T.L., Solanki, S.K., Chares, B., et al.: 2010, Solar Phys. doi: 10.1007/s11207-010-9636-y .

    Google Scholar 

  4. Martínez Pillet, V., del Toro Iniesta, J.C., Álvarez-Herrero, A., Domingo, V., Bonet, J.A., González Fernández, L.: et al.: 2010, Solar Phys. doi: 10.1007/s11207-010-9644-y .

    Google Scholar 

  5. Michau, V., Rousset, G., Fontanella, J.C.: 1992, In: Radick, R.R. (ed.) Real Time and Post Facto Solar Image Correction, Proc. NSO/Sacramento Peak Summer Workshop, National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, 124.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Schmidt, W., Solanki, S.K., Lites, B.W., Title, A.M., Martínez Pillet, V.: 2001, Astron. Nachr. 322, 363.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  7. Schmidt, W., Berkefeld, T., Friedlein, R., Heidecke, F., Kentischer, T., von der Lühe, O.F., Sigwarth, M., Soltau, D., Wälde, E.: 2004, In: Oschmann, J.M. (ed.) Ground-based Telescopes, Proc. SPIE 5489, 1164.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Schmidt, W., Berkefeld, T., Feger, B., Friedlein, R., Gerber, K., Heidecke, F., et al.: 2006, In: Lewis, H., Bridger, A. (eds.) Advanced Software and Control for Astronomy, Proc. SPIE 6274, 62740H.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Schmidt, W., Solanki, S.K., Barthol, P., Berkefeld, T., Gandorfer, A., Knölker, M., Martínez Pillet, V., Schüssler, M., Title, A.: 2010, Astron. Nachr. 331, 601.

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  10. Solanki, S.K., Gandorfer, A.M., Schüssler, M., Curdt, W., Lites, B.W., Martinez-Pillet, V., Schmidt, W., Title, A.M.: 2003, In: Keil, S.L., Avakyan, S.V. (eds.) Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, Proc. SPIE 4853, 129.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Volkmer, R., von der Lühe, O., Kneer, F., Staude, J., Hofmann, A., Schmidt, W., et al.: 2003, In: Keil, S.L., Avakyan, S.V. (eds.) Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, Proc. SPIE 4853, 360.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Volkmer, R., von der Lühe, O., Kneer, F., Staude, J., Berkefeld, T., Caligari, P., et al.: 2006, In: Stepp, L.M. (ed.) Ground-Based and Airborne Telescopes, Proc. SPIE 6267, 62670W.

    Google Scholar 

  13. von der Lühe, O., Soltau, D., Berkefeld, T., Schelenz, T.: 2003, In: Keil, S.L., Avakyan, S.V. (eds.) Innovative Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, Proc. SPIE 4853, 187.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to T. Berkefeld.

Additional information

HAO/NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Berkefeld, T., Schmidt, W., Soltau, D. et al. The Wave-Front Correction System for the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Solar Observatory. Sol Phys 268, 103–123 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-010-9676-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Adaptive optics
  • Balloon
  • Image stabilization
  • Instrumentation
  • Shack – Hartmann
  • Tip-tilt correction
  • Wavefront sensing