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Table 3 The perception of a too-weak response to the crisis is the strongest factor explaining the trust in the government, even when controlling for the effect of the crisis (number of deaths in the country at time of survey) and a number of other factors. Model 4 is the robustness test (without weighting and omitting the outlier country Mexico)

From: Trust in Government Actions During the COVID-19 Crisis

Government trust Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Perceived insufficient − 1.144*** − 1.158*** − 1.149*** − 0.904***
reaction (− 17.73) (− 11.43) (− 11.00) (− 184.16)
Perceived too extreme − 0.558** − 0.606*** − 0.579** − 0.600***
reaction (− 2.58) (− 3.28) (− 2.82) (− 49.10)
Media freedom    − 0.026*** − 0.012*
   (− 4.86) (− 2.05)
Government effectiveness    − 0.020 0.008
   (− 0.36) (0.09)
Current stringency    − 0.004 0.000
   (− 0.88) (0.56)
Average stringency since    0.040*** 0.005**
the first death    (3.93) (2.73)
COVID-19 deaths    − 0.000*** − 0.000**
(in thousands)    (− 4.19) (− 2.70)
Education   0.008 0.008 0.004***
  (0.54) (0.51) (4.95)
Age   0.01** 0.009* 0.003***
  (3.01) (2.27) (12.13)
Female   − 0.292* − 0.321* − 0.005
  (− 2.28) (− 2.26) (− 0.74)
Health (self-assessed)   0.203*** 0.221** 0.106***
  (3.32) (2.56) (23.51)
Married   0.043 0.016 − 0.049***
  (0.32) (0.11) (− 7.10)
Constant 3.865*** 3.195*** 3.633*** 3.568***
(35.8) (9.35) (6.02) (19.25)
N 105057 105057 100605 97605
Countries 57 57 55 54
Wald \(\chi ^2\) 333.99 332.08 635.69 34166
Log pseudolikelihood − 749.17 − 733.28 − 636.43 − 138599
  1. *, **, *** correspond to significance on the 5%, 1%, and 0.1% level