Computer crime is a matter of increasing concern, and worldwide action is required if the proper responses to it are to be found. One of the tools that can be deployed here is the Global cybersecurity index (GCI), a control and feedback mechanism based on a composite indicator. The GCI is based on a hierarchy of sub-indicators. The indicators used for the final aggregation of the CGI are called pillars. Five pillars are applied to rank the eleven countries that are top of the rankings in a worldwide study. In this paper, our ranking is based on these pillars, and their role is investigated using partial order methodology. It turns out that the pillars “Technical (aspects)”, “Capacity building”, and “Cooperation” are of particular importance. In conclusion, a strategy is suggested for an “individualized ranking” that may be helpful for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or other institutions. Here, we apply the procedure for the project “Awareness Laboratory SME (ALARM) information security” and put our ideas up for discussion. In particular, the mathematical method will be transferred to SMEs as a means to support the effectiveness of awareness-raising measures and to improve the security behaviour of company employees.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Annoni, P., Brüggemann, R., & Carlsen, L. (2017). Pecularities in multidimensional regional poverty. In M. Fattore & R. Brüggemann (Eds.), Partial Order Concepts in Applied Sciences (pp. 121–133). Springer.
Backhaus, K., Erichson, B., Plinke, W., & Weiber, R. (2000). Multivariate Analysemethoden - eine anwendungsorientierte Einführung. Springer-Verlag.
Bruggemann, R., & Annoni, P. (2014). Average heights in partially ordered sets. MATCH Commun Math Comput Chem, 71, 101–126.
Bruggemann, R., & Bartel, H.-G. (1999). A theoretical concept to rank environmentally significant chemicals. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 39, 211–217.
Bruggemann, R., & Carlsen, L. (2016). An attempt to understand noisy posets. MATCH Commun Math Comput Chem, 75, 485–510.
Bruggemann, R., & Carlsen, L. (2021). Uncertainty in weights for composite indicators generated by weighted sums. In R. Bruggemann, L. Carlsen, T. Beycan, C. Suter, & F. Maggino (Eds.), Measuring and Understanding Complex Phenomena -Indicators and their Analysis in Different Scientific Fields (pp. 45–62). Springer.
Bruggemann, R., Carlsen, L., Voigt, K., & Wieland, R. (2014). PyHasse software for partial order analysis. In R. Bruggemann, L. Carlsen, & J. Wittmann (Eds.), Multi-Indicator Systems and Modelling in Partial Order (pp. 389–423). Springer.
Bruggemann, R., & Patil, G. P. (2011). Ranking and Prioritization for Multi-indicator Systems - Introduction to Partial Order Applications. Springer.
Bruggemann, R., Sørensen, P. B., Lerche, D., & Carlsen, L. (2004). Estimation of Averaged Ranks by a Local Partial Order Model. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences, 44, 618–625.
Bruggemann, R., & Voigt, K. (2011). a new tool to analyze partially ordered sets - application: ranking of polychlorinated biphenyls and alkanes/alkenes in river main, Germany. MATCH Commun Math Comput Chem, 66, 231–251.
Carlsen, L. (2005). Partial order ranking of organophosphates with special emphasis on nerve agents. MATCH - Commun Mat Comput Chem, 54, 519–534.
Clark, J., & Holton, D. A. (1994). Graphentheorie. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg.
Davey, B. A., & Priestley, H. A. (1990). Introduction to Lattices and Order. Cambridge University Press.
Doignon, J.-P., Falmagne, & J.C. . (1999). Knowledge Spaces. Springer.
Figueira, J., Greco, S., & Ehrgott, M. (2005). Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, State of the Art Surveys. Springer, Boston.
Ganter, B., & Wille, R. (1996). Formale Begriffsanalyse: Mathematische Grundlagen. Springer-Verlag.
GCI a: Global Cybersecurity Index. Retrieved from: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Cybersecurity/Pages/global-cybersecurity-index.aspx. Accessed: November 29, 2020
GCI b: Global Cybersecurity Index. Retrieved from: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Cybersecurity/Documents/GCIv4/New_Reference_Model_GCIv4_V2_.pdf. Accessed: October 20, 2020.
Newlin, J., & Patil, G. P. (2010). Application of partial order to stream channel assessment at bridge infrastructure for mitigation management. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 17, 437–454.
Scholl, M. (2018). Information Security Awareness in Public Administrations. In Ubaldo Comite, Public Management and Administration. 1–30. Open Access: InTechOpen.
Scholl, M. (2020). (How) can directive (EU) 2019/1937 on whistleblowers be used to build up a security and safety culture in Institutions? Information Security Education Journal (ISEJ), 7(2), 40–57.
Scholl, M., & Ehrlich, E. (2020). Information security officer: Job profile, necessary qualifications, and awareness raising explained in a practical way. Buchwelten Verlag.
Spoto, A., Stefanutti, L., & Vidotto, G. (2010). Knowledge space theory, formal concept analysis, and computerized psychological assessment. Behavior Research Methods, 42(1), 342–350.
Trotter, W. T. (1992). Combinatorics and partially ordered sets. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Voigt, K., Welzl, G., & Bruggemann, R. (2004). Data analysis of environmental air pollutant monitoring systems in Europe. Environmetrics, 15, 577–596.
Voß,M. (2010). Die ungarische Methode – ein Algorithmus für Bipartite Matchings. GRIN, Norderstedt, Deutschland
Winkler, P. (1982). Average height in a partially ordered set. Discrete Mathematics, 39, 337–341.
We would like to thank maths teacher Klaus-Jürgen Hügel for his didactic recommendations and Simon Cowper for his professional proofreading of the text. The funding institution is the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). We thank the reviewers for their helpful comments.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bruggemann, R., Koppatz, P., Scholl, M. et al. Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI) and the Role of its 5 Pillars. Soc Indic Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-021-02739-y
- Composite index
- Partial ordering
- Global cybersecurity index