This study analyses the effects of performance appraisal on the levels of job satisfaction reported by workers without and with disabilities (aged 16–64) by gender. Particularly, we are interested in investigating the impact of monetary rewards such as pay, bonuses, future raises and potential promotion on job satisfaction by disability status and checking differences by gender. Our data come from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 2004, 2008, 2011 and 2016. We estimate job satisfaction equations running a fixed effect "Probit Adapted OLS" model. We find that males with disabilities are less likely to be satisfied with their jobs when they are subject to performance appraisal with monetary effects (appraisals with both short and long-term rewards explain this result), whereas the opposite result is found for females with disabilities (in the case of receiving long-term rewards). We estimate the association of these performance appraisal schemes with recognition from superiors, and with their efforts, personal advances and pay, and we find a coherent pattern with previous results.
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According to the existing literature (e.g. Kristensen and Johansson 2008; Bonsang and van Soest 2012; Knott et al. 2017), one of the problem of using self-evaluations of overall happiness or job satisfaction is that individuals from different countries, cultures or socio-economic backgrounds may perceive these questions on satisfaction in different ways, and may use different response scales (i.e. differential item functioning, DIF). To avoid this problem, the use of anchoring vignettes (wherein individuals evaluate, on the same scale, how good or bad are different hypothetical job or life situations) contributes to identifying these interpersonal differentials in response scales (King et al. 2004). In our case, unfortunately we cannot use this technique with the information on performance appraisal included in the SOEP.
They also use the created measures of disability from the SOEP to estimate the prevalence of disability for working-age men (aged 21–58) in the western states of Germany between 1984 and 2002. They also compare the employment of the working-age men with disabilities relative to their counterparts without disabilities in Germany and in the United States. They demonstrate the consistency and validity of the combination measure to investigate the impact of different disability policies and policy changes in Germany alone or in comparison with the United States.
Similar to Pagan (2010), we have analysed the relationship between disability and health satisfaction in order to test that both variables do not correlate perfectly. For this purpose, we have calculated the relationship between disability and health satisfaction for our samples of reference. We found that 27.1% of people with disabilities (31.02 and 23.46% for males and females, respectively) have a health satisfaction score equal to or over 5 points. This result is even higher than that obtained by Pagan (2010). Similar to Pagan (2010), this percentage for people without disabilities goes up to 89.89% (90.27 and 89.13% for males and females, respectively). These results are also in line with other psychological studies that conclude that the domain of disability extends far beyond health related concerns to encompass the person’s well-being, definition of self and social position (Grimby et al. 1988). Therefore, in studying disability, it is critical not to restrict the notion of job satisfaction to health related issues.
For instance, “when we like to apply these models in panel analysis where we want to take into account the panel structure either by assuming that the error terms between different observations of the same individual are correlated (individual random effects) or by introducing individual fixed effects many computational problems appear, when the one dimensional integrals have to be replaced by multi-dimensional integrals, where integration problems tend to become overwhelming (van Praag and Ferrer-i- Carbonell (2006, p. 5)”.
The total effect of performance appraisal schemes for people with disabilities -obtained summing the corresponding coefficients on performance appraisal dummies and interactions- show the same gendered pattern.
Note that the total effect of performance appraisal schemes on recognitions for people without disabilities corresponds to the set of dummies for performance appraisal in Table 4 not considering the interaction terms.
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Pagan, R., Malo, M.Á. Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction for Workers Without and With Disabilities by Gender. Soc Indic Res 153, 1011–1039 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-020-02524-3
- Performance appraisal
- Job satisfaction