Table A1 Logistic regression models for the likelihood of subjective (in-work) poverty by different levels of objective (in-work) poverty at different levels of work intensity

From: Being Working Poor or Feeling Working Poor? The Role of Work Intensity and Job Stability for Subjective Poverty

 Model 1aModel 1bModel 2Model 3
Coeff.
(no interaction terms)
Coeff.
(Figure 1)
Coeff.
(robustness check subj. poverty)
Coeff.
(robustness check nr. workers)
Objective poverty (ref.: severely poor)
 Poor− 0.392**0.009− 1.926**− 0.382**
[0.163][0.554][0.657][0.176]
 Vulnerable− 0.522**− 0.011− 0.128− 0.590**
[0.147][0.483][0.503][0.162]
 Non-poor− 0.779**− 0.146− 1.097**− 0.882**
[0.121][0.388][0.418][0.133]
 Above the median income− 1.506**− 1.041**− 1.632**− 1.654**
[0.126][0.372][0.405][0.136]
Work intensity: number of full/part-time workers (ref: 1 part-time)
 1 full-time− 0.0160.7440.602 
[0.123][0.508][0.544] 
 1 full-time. 1 part-time0.1680.690.04 
[0.516][0.623][0.633] 
 2 full-time0.6871.157*0.673 
[0.538][0.659][0.678] 
Nr. of workers in the household (ref.: One)
 Two− 0.121− 0.121− 0.223− 0.484*
[0.515][0.508][0.500][0.265]
Nr. of self-employed (ref.: none)
 One− 0.349**− 0.355**− 0.260**− 0.370**
[0.084][0.084][0.093][0.084]
 Two− 0.575**− 0.515**− 0.279− 0.557**
[0.222][0.218][0.221][0.223]
Household members (ref.: one)
 20.647**0.665**0.854**0.670**
[0.140][0.141][0.148][0.140]
 30.928**0.947**0.928**0.935**
[0.178][0.179][0.189][0.178]
 41.061**1.077**1.099**1.052**
[0.210][0.210][0.221][0.211]
 51.270**1.281**1.243**1.255**
[0.248][0.248][0.262][0.248]
Household composition. adult members (ref.: single)
 Couple− 0.244*− 0.264**− 0.287**− 0.302**
[0.129][0.131][0.137][0.129]
 Presence of children < 15 (ref.: no)
 Yes. One− 0.224**− 0.224**− 0.248**− 0.220**
[0.104][0.103][0.113][0.104]
 Yes. two or more− 0.388**− 0.396**− 0.342**− 0.375**
[0.146][0.146][0.160][0.147]
Number of foreign born household member (ref.: none)
 At least one0.238**0.247**0.697**0.218**
[0.098][0.098][0.099][0.098]
Age of the oldest household member (ref.: < 35)
 35–440.0740.075− 0.0040.077
[0.129][0.130][0.144][0.129]
 45–640.0360.0370.0340.045
[0.128][0.129][0.141][0.128]
Highest educational level (ref.: up to lower secondary)
 Upper secondary− 0.435**− 0.443**− 0.619**− 0.431**
[0.098][0.098][0.100][0.098]
 Tertiary− 1.008**− 1.018**− 1.366**− 1.003**
[0.113][0.113][0.119][0.113]
Home-ownership (ref.: no)
 Yes− 0.467**− 0.463**− 0.776**− 0.484**
[0.076][0.076][0.081][0.076]
Geographical area of residence (ref.: North)
 Center0.270**0.277**0.0940.271**
[0.086][0.086][0.097][0.086]
 South and Islands0.535**0.536**0.580**0.538**
[0.083][0.083][0.090][0.083]
Degree of urbanization (ref.: low)
 High0.119*0.122*− 0.0270.113
[0.069][0.069][0.076][0.069]
Interaction terms
Objective poverty * Work intensity(1)
 Poor * 1 full-time − 0.3701.629* 
 [0.816][0.916] 
 Vulnerable * 1 full-time − 0.4741.475** 
 [0.588][0.687] 
 Non-poor * 1 full-time − 0.2251.243 
 [0.681][0.778] 
 Above the median * 1 full-time − 1.047− 1.273* 
 [0.687][0.720] 
 Poor * 1 full-time. 1 part-time − 0.443− 0.347 
 [0.514][0.535] 
 Vulnerable * 1 full-time. 1 part-time − 0.947− 0.772 
 [0.655][0.677] 
 Non-poor * 1 full-time. 1 part-time − 1.020*0.057 
 [0.557][0.594] 
 Above the median * 1 full-time. 1 part-time − 0.724*0.226 
 [0.414][0.445] 
 Poor * 2 full-time − 0.2470.472 
 [0.505][0.553] 
 Vulnerable * 2 full-time − 0.66− 0.571 
 [0.534][0.576] 
 Non-poor * 2 full-time − 0.4830.152 
 [0.394][0.429] 
 Above the median * 2 full-time − 0.8390.398 
 [0.617][0.589] 
Objective poverty * Work intensity (2)
 Poor * 2 workers   − 0.231
   [0.491]
 Vulnerable * 2 workers   0.177
   [0.368]
 Non-poor * 2 workers   0.204
   [0.297]
 Above the median * 2 workers   0.24
   [0.283]
Constant0.400− 0.0890.5320.742**
[0.565][0.647][0.660][0.181]
N7922792279227922
  1. Notes: coefficients and standard errors (in parentheses): model 2 uses an alternative measure of subjective poverty, defined as not to be able to afford two out of three of the following items: 1 week annual holiday away from home; a meal with meat, chicken, fish every second day; to face unexpected financial expenses. Model 3 uses number of workers in the household as an alternative measure of work intensity
  2. Source: EU-SILC 2014, Italian module. Authors’ calculations (weighted)
  3. P-value: * = 0.10, ** = 0.05