One strand of the literature suggests that higher income individuals are less susceptible to time poverty because they can afford to hire others to assist them with household duties, while another strand postulates a potential trade-off between income poverty and time poverty. This study examined the relationship between time poverty and income/consumption poverty among households in Ghana, using data from three Ghana Living Standard Surveys. The descriptive analysis showed that while time poverty has declined since the 1998/1999 survey period, it is still more prevalent among women, urban residents, those with low levels of education and the non-poor. The regression estimates confirm the trade-off hypothesis, but the subsample analysis across gender and periods of the survey reveals some element of the counter-argument to the trade-off hypothesis among females. The Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations should collaborate with other allied bodies such as the Ghana Employers Association and trade unions to design labour market policies that will create flexible work conditions for especially time-poor women. Such policies should prioritize early childhood education in public schools, promote the provision of onsite day care services by employers, and the incentive to use public transport to ease time-consuming car travel in congested cities.
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The concept of feminisation of poverty means one or a combination of the following three hypotheses: (1) there is a higher incidence of poverty among women than among men; (2) women’s poverty is more severe than men’s; and (3) over time, the incidence of poverty among women is increasing compared to men (Cagatay 1998).
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The three dummy variables, which took on the value of 1 if a survey was conducted in a particular year and 0 if otherwise, were included in the analysis. The survey years were 1998/1999 (GLSS4), 2005/2006 (GLSS5) and 2012/2013 (GLSS6). To avoid a potential dummy variable trap, the year 1998/1999 was kept as a reference category.
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Orkoh, E., Blaauw, P.F. & Claassen, C. Relative Effects of Income and Consumption Poverty on Time Poverty in Ghana. Soc Indic Res 147, 465–499 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-019-02158-0
- Income poverty
- Consumption poverty
- Time poverty
- Recursive bivariate regression