Segregation and Social Welfare: A Methodological Proposal with an Application to the U.S.
- 245 Downloads
The aim of this paper is twofold: (a) to define a new concept, the welfare loss that a society experiences due to the segregation of the demographic groups that comprise it and (b) to propose measures that quantify this phenomenon satisfying a set of normative properties. In aggregating the well-being losses (gains) of the groups derived for being concentrated in low-status (high-status) organizational units, this paper embraces the distributive approach adopted in the literature on economic deprivation and poverty. The advantages of these measures are shown by exploring the welfare losses that the United States has experienced from 1980 to 2012 due to occupational segregation by both gender and race/ethnicity. Our analysis shows that our measures reveal certain aspects of the phenomenon that do not emerge when using overall segregation measures. Thus, for example, while nothing seems to have changed in U.S. labor market in the last decade according to some well-known overall segregation measures, the social welfare loss due to segregation has actually increased.
KeywordsSegregation measures Social welfare Occupations Wages Gender/race
JEL ClassificationD63 J15 J71 Z13
Funding was provided by the Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (Grant No. ECO2014-52616-R), the Agencia Estatal de Investigación and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (Grant No. ECO2016-76506-C4-2-R), and Xunta de Galicia (Grant No. GRC 2015/014). We also want to thank Francesco Andreoli and the reviewers for helpful comments).
- Allard, M. (2011). Asians in the U.S. labor force: Profile of a diverse population. Monthly Labor Review, 134(11), 3–22.Google Scholar
- Alonso-Villar, O., Del Río, C., & Gradín, C. (2012). The extent of occupational segregation in the United States: Differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. Industrial Relations, 51(2), 179–212.Google Scholar
- Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2016). The gender wage gap: Extent, trends, and explanations. NBER Working Paper 21913.Google Scholar
- Collins, P. H. (1999). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness and the politics of empowerment. London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
- Cowell, F. A. (2011). Measuring inequality. London school of economics perspectives in economic analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Glenn, E. N. (1999). The social construction and institutionalization of gender and race: An integrative framework. In M. M. Ferree, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 3–43). Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage publications.Google Scholar
- Hsieh, C.-T., Hurst, E., Jones, C. I., & Klenow, P. J. (2013). The allocation of talent and U.S. economic growth. NBER Working Paper 18693.Google Scholar
- Jenkins, S. P., & Lambert, P. J. (1993). Poverty orderings, poverty gaps, and poverty lines. University of Wales Swansea Economics Discussion Paper 93-07.Google Scholar
- Jenkins, S. P., & Lambert, P. J. (1998). Three ‘I’s of poverty curves and poverty dominance: TIPs for poverty analysis. Research on Economic Inequality, 8, 39–56.Google Scholar
- Kaufman, R. L. (2010). Race, gender, and the labor market: Inequalities at work. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
- King, M. (1992). Occupational segregation by race and sex, 1940–1988. Monthly Labor Review, 115, 30–37.Google Scholar
- Kurtulus, F. (2012). Affirmative action and the occupational advancement of minorities and women during 1973–2003. Industrial Relations, 51, 213–246.Google Scholar
- Lambert, P. J. (1993). The distribution and redistribution of income. A mathematical analysis. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
- Reskin, B., Hargens, L., & Hirsh, E. (2004). Picturing segregation: The structure of occupational segregation by sex, race, ethnicity, and hispanicity. Washington: Mimeo, University of Washington.Google Scholar
- Ruggles, S., Alexander, T., Genadek, K., Goeken, R., Schroeder, M., & Sobek, M. (2010). Integrated public use microdata series: Version 5.0 [machine-readable database]. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Population Center.Google Scholar
- Shorrocks, A. (1998). Deprivation profiles and deprivation indices. In S. P. Jenkins, A. Kapteyn, & B. M. S. van Praag (Eds.), The distribution of house welfare and household production (pp. 250–267). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Spencer, B. D., & Fischer, S. (1992). On comparing distributions of poverty gaps. Sankhyā: The Indian Journal of Statistics, series B (1960–2002), 54(1), 114–126.Google Scholar