Abdullah, A., Hedayati Marzbali, M., Woolley, H., Bahauddin, A., & Maliki, N. Z. (2013). Testing for individual factors for the fear of crime using a multiple indicator-multiple cause model. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 20(1), 1–22.
Adams, R. E., & Serpe, R. T. (2000). Social integration, fear of crime, and life satisfaction. Sociological Perspectives, 43(4), 605–629.
Ahern, J., Galea, S., Hubbard, A., & Karpati, A. (2008). Population vulnerabilities and capacities related to health: A test of a model. Social Science and Medicine, 66(3), 691–703.
Alkire, S., Foster, J., Suman, S., Santos, M. E., Roche, J. M., & Ballon, P. (2015). Multidimensional poverty measurement and analysis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ambrey, C. L., Fleming, C. M., & Manning, M. (2013). Perception or reality, what matters most when it comes to crime in your neighbourhood? Social Indicators Research, 119(2), 877–896.
Barni, D., Vieno, A., Roccato, M., & Russo, S. (2015). Basic personal values, the country’s crime rate and the fear of crime. Social Indicators Research,. doi:10.1007/s11205-015-1161-9.
Box, S., Hale, C., & Andrews, G. (1988). Explaining fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology, 28(3), 340–356.
Briceño-León, R., Villaveces, A., & Concha-Eastman, A. (2008). Understanding the uneven distribution of the incidence of homicide in Latin America. International Journal of Epidemiology, 37(4), 751–757.
Brunton-Smith, I. (2011). Untangling the relationship between fear of crime and perceptions of disorder: Evidence from a longitudinal study of young people in England and Wales. British Journal of Criminology, 51(6), 885–899.
Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J., & Sutherland, A. (2014). Bridging structure and perception. British Journal of Criminology, 54(4), 503–526. doi:10.1093/bjc/azu020.
Brunton-Smith, I., & Sturgis, P. (2011). Do neighborhoods generate fear of crime? An empirical test using the British Crime Survey. Criminology, 49(2), 331–369.
Bunch, J., Clay-Warner, J., & Mcmahon-Howard, J. (2014). The effects of victimization on routine activities. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(5), 574–592.
Bursik, R. J. (1988). Social disorganization and theories of crime and delinquency: Problems and prospects. Criminology, 26(4), 519–551.
Caudillo, M. L., & Torche, F. (2014). Exposure to local homicides and early educational achievement in Mexico. Sociology of Education, 87(2), 89–105.
CONEVAL. (2010). Metodologia para la medicion multidimensional de la pobreza en Mexico. Mexico, DF: CONEVAL.
Curry, A., Latkin, C., & Davey-Rothwell, M. (2008). Pathways to depression: The impact of neighborhood violent crime on inner-city residents in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Social Science and Medicine, 67(1), 23–30. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.007.
Diez Roux, A. V., & Mair, C. (2010). Neighborhoods and health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186(1), 125–145.
Doran, B. J., & Burgess, M. B. (2012). Putting fear of crime on the map: Investigating perceptions of crime using geographic information systems. New York, NY: Springer.
Enders, C. K., & Tofighi, D. (2007). Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: A new look at an old issue. Psychological Methods, 12(2), 121–138.
Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2010). Multiple risk exposure as a potential explanatory mechanism for the socioeconomic status-health gradient. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186(1), 174–189.
Ferguson, K. M., & Mindel, C. H. (2007). Modeling fear of crime in dallas neighborhoods: A test of social capital theory. Crime & Delinquency, 53(2), 322–349.
Ferraro, K. F. (1987). The measurement of fear of crime. Sociological Inquiry, 57, 70–101.
Ferraro, K. F., & Lagrange, E. (1995). Fear of crime: Interpreting victimization risk. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Foster, S., Knuiman, M., Hooper, P., Christian, H., & Giles-Corti, B. (2014). Do changes in residents’ fear of crime impact their walking? Longitudinal results from RESIDE. Preventive Medicine, 62(C), 161–166.
Fowler, P. J., Tompsett, C. J., Braciszewski, J. M., Jacques-Tiura, A. J., & Baltes, B. B. (2009). Community violence: A meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 21(01), 227.
Franklin, T. W., Franklin, C. A., & Fearn, N. E. (2008). A multilevel analysis of the vulnerability, disorder, and social integration models of fear of crime. Social Justice Research, 21(2), 204–227.
Galea, S., Ahern, J., & Karpati, A. (2005). A model of underlying socioeconomic vulnerability in human populations: Evidence from variability in population health and implications for public health. Social Science and Medicine, 60(11), 2417–2430.
Gau, J. M., & Pratt, T. C. (2010). Revisiting broken windows theory: Examining the sources of the discriminant validity of perceived disorder and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 758–766. doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2010.05.002.
Gibson, C. L., Zhao, J., Lovrich, N. P., & Gaffney, M. J. (2002). Social integration, individual perceptions of collective efficacy, and fear of crime in three cities. Justice Quarterly, 19(3), 537–564.
Graif, C., Gladfelter, A. S., & Matthews, S. A. (2014). Urban poverty and neighborhood effects on crime: Incorporating spatial and network perspectives. Sociology Compass, 8(9), 1140–1155. doi:10.1111/soc4.12199.
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.
Gray, E., Jackson, J., & Farrall, S. (2011). Feelings and functions in the fear of crime: Applying a new approach to victimisation insecurity. British Journal of Criminology, 51(1), 75–94.
Green, G., Gilbertson, J. M., & Grimsley, M. F. J. (2002). Fear of crime and health in residential tower blocks. A case study in Liverpool, UK. European Journal of Public Health, 12(1), 10–15.
Grice, J. W. (2001). Computing and evaluating factor scores. Psychological Methods, 6(4), 430–450. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.6.4.430.
Hale, C. (1996). Fear of crime: A review of the literature. International Review of Victimology, 4, 79–150.
Hanslmaier, M. (2013). Crime, fear and subjective well-being: How victimization and street crime affect fear and life satisfaction. European Journal of Criminology, 10(5), 515–533.
Hawdon, J., Rasanen, P., Oksanen, A., & Vuori, M. (2014). Social responses to collective crime: Assessing the relationship between crime-related fears and collective sentiments. European Journal of Criminology, 11(1), 39–56.
Hawdon, J., & Ryan, J. (2009). Social capital, social control, and changes in victimization rates. Crime & Delinquency, 55(4), 526–549.
Hicks, S., & Brown, S. (2013). Perceptions of risk: A review of the effects of individual and community-level variables on perceptions of risk. International Review of Victimology, 19(3), 249–267.
Hinkle, J. C., & Weisburd, D. (2008). The irony of broken windows policing: A micro-place study of the relationship between disorder, focused police crackdowns and fear of crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36(6), 503–512.
Hipp, J. R. (2007). Block, tract, and levels of aggregation: Neighborhood structure and crime and disorder as a case in point. American Sociological Review, 62(5), 659–680.
Hipp, J. R. (2013). Assessing crime as a problem: The relationship between residents’ perception of crime and official crime rates over 25 years. Crime & Delinquency, 59(4), 616–648.
Imbusch, P., Misse, M., & Carrion, F. (2011). Violence research in latin america and the caribbean: A literature review. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 5(1), 87–154.
INEGI (2015). Encuesta Nacional de Victimización y Percepción sobre Seguridad Pública (ENVIPE) 2015. Executive Summary. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia. http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/contenidos/proyectos/encuestas/hogares/regulares/envipe/envipe2015/doc/envipe2015_presentacion_nacional.pdf. Accessed 4 Jan 2016.
Innes, M. (2004). Signal crimes and signal disorders: Notes on deviance as communicative action. The British Journal of Sociology, 55(3), 335–355.
Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., & Wilkinson, R. G. (1999). Crime: Social disorganization and relative deprivation. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 719–731.
Kawachi, I., & Subramanian, S. V. (2014). Income Inequality. In L. M. Berkman, I. Kawachi, & M. M. Glymour (Eds.), Social epidemiology (pp. 126–152). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kitchen, P., & Williams, A. (2010). Quality of life and perceptions of crime in Saskatoon. Canada. Social Indicators Research, 95(1), 35–61.
Kondo, N., Sembajwe, G., Kawachi, I., van Dam, R. M., Subramanian, S. V., & Yamagata, Z. (2009). Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: Meta-analysis of multilevel studies. BMJ,. doi:10.1136/bmj.b4471.
Kondo, N., van Dam, R. M., Sembajwe, G., Subramanian, S. V., Kawachi, I., & Yamagata, Z. (2012). Income inequality and health: The role of population size, inequality threshold, period effects and lag effects. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(6), e11.
Lambert, S. F., Boyd, R. C., & Cammack, N. L. (2012). Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: Associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(1), 1–9.
Leenen, I., & Cervantes-Trejo, A. (2014). Temporal and geographic trends in homicide and suicide rates in Mexico, from 1998 through 2012. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(6), 699–707.
Liska, A. E., Sanchirico, A., & Reed, M. D. (1988). Fear of crime and constrained behavior specifying and estimating a reciprocal effects model. Social Forces, 66(3), 827–837.
Logan, J. R. (2012). Making a place for space: Spatial thinking in social science. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 507–524.
Lorenc, T., Clayton, S., Neary, D., Whitehead, M., Petticrew, M., Thomson, H., et al. (2012). Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing Mapping review of theories and causal pathways. Health & Place, 18(4), 757–765.
Lorenc, T., Petticrew, M., Whitehead, M., Neary, D., Clayton, S., Wright, K., et al. (2013a). Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: Systematic review of effectiveness. Systematic Reviews, 2(1), 30.
Lorenc, T., Petticrew, M., Whitehead, M., Neary, D., Clayton, S., Wright, K., et al. (2013b). Fear of crime and the environment: Systematic review of UK qualitative evidence. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1.
Lowe, S., Galea, S., Uddin, M., & Koenen, K. (2014). Trajectories of posttraumatic stress among urban residents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 53(1–2), 159–172.
Macmillan, R. (2001). Violence and the life course: The consequences of victimization for personal and social development. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 1–22.
Magaloni, B. (2012). The impact of violence on human capital: Findings from schools in Mexico. Research Report. Program on Poverty and Governance. Stanford University. http://web.stanford.edu/~magaloni/dox/2012violencehumancapital.pdf. Accessed 17 May 2015.
Markowitz, F. E., Bellair, P. E., Liska, A. E., & Liu, J. (2001). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology, 39, 293–319.
Massey, D. (2013). Inheritance of poverty or inheritance of place? The emerging consensus on neighborhoods and stratification. Contemporary Sociology, 42(5), 690–695.
Matthews, K. A., Gallo, L. C., & Taylor, S. E. (2010). Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186(1), 146–173.
Moiduddin, E., & Massey, D. S. (2008). Neighborhood disadvantage and birth weight: The role of perceived danger and substance abuse. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 2(1), 113–129.
Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39(3), 517–558.
OECD. (2015). Measuring well-being in Mexican States. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Palomar-Lever, J., & Victorio-Estrada, A. (2011). Factors that influence emotional disturbance in adults living in extreme poverty. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(2), 158–164.
Pantazis, C. (2000). ’Fear of crime’, vulnerability and poverty. British Journal of Criminology, 40(3), 414–436.
Pearson, A. L., & Breetzke, G. D. (2013). The association between the fear of crime, and mental and physical wellbeing in New Zealand. Social Indicators Research, 119(1), 281–294.
Pickett, K. E., & Wilkinson, R. G. (2015). Income inequality and health: A causal review. Social Science and Medicine, 128(2015), 316–326.
Polling, C., Khondoker, M., Hatch, S. L., & Hotopf, M. (2014). Influence of perceived and actual neighbourhood disorder on common mental illness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(6), 889–901.
Rader, N. E. (2004). The threat of victimization: A theoretical reconceptualization of fear of crime. Sociological Spectrum, 24(6), 689–704.
Rader, N. E., Cossman, J. S., & Porter, J. R. (2012). Fear of crime and vulnerability: Using a national sample of Americans to examine two competing paradigms. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(2), 134–141.
Raudenbush, S. W. (2008). Many small groups. In J. De Deleeuw & E. Meijer (Eds.), Handbook of multilevel analysis (pp. 207–236). New York, NY: Springer.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Sampson, R. J. (1999). Ecometrics: Toward a science of assessing ecological settings, with application to the systematic social observation of neighborhoods. Sociological Methodology, 29(1), 1–41.
Rengifo, A. F., & Bolton, A. (2012). Routine activities and fear of crime: Specifying individual-level mechanisms. European Journal of Criminology, 9(2), 99–119.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. (1993). The NIMH community violence project: I. Children as victims of and witnesses to violence. Psychiatry, 56, 7–23.
Rigdon, E. E. (2014). Rethinking partial least squares path modeling: Breaking chains and forging ahead. Long Range Planning, 47(3), 161–167. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2014.02.003.
Riger, S., Gordon, M. T., & LeBailly, R. K. (1982). Coping with urban crime: Women’s use of precautionary behaviors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10(4), 369–386.
Roberts, B., Stickley, A., Petticrew, M., & McKee, M. (2012). The influence of concern about crime on levels of psychological distress in the former Soviet Union. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(5), 433–439.
Rountree, P. W., & Land, K. C. (1996). Perceived risk versus fear of crime: Empirical evidence of conceptually distinct reactions in survey data. Social Forces, 74(4), 1353–1376.
Ruiz, J. I. (2010). Eficacia colectiva, cultura ciudadana y victimización: un análisis exploratorio sobre sus relaciones con diversas medidas del miedo al crimen. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 13(1), 103–114.
Russo, S., & Roccato, M. (2010). How long does victimization foster fear of crime? A longitudinal study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(8), 960–974.
Russo, S., Roccato, M., & Vieno, A. (2012). Criminal victimization and crime risk perception: A multilevel longitudinal study. Social Indicators Research, 112(3), 535–548. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0050-8.
Sacco, V. F., & Nakhaie, M. R. (2001). Coping with crime. An examination of elderly and nonelderly adaptations. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 24(2–3), 305–323.
Sampson, R. J. (2003). The neighborhood context of well-being. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46(3), S53–S64.
Sampson, R. J. (2009). Disparity and diversity in the contemporary city: Social (dis)order revisited1. The British Journal of Sociology, 60(1), 1–31.
Sampson, R. J. (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). Seeing disorder: Neighborhood stigma and the social construction of “broken windows”. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4), 319–342.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924.
San-Juan, C., Vozmediano, L., & Vergara, A. (2012). Self-protective behaviours against crime in urban settings: An empirical approach to vulnerability and victimization models. European Journal of Criminology, 9(6), 652–667.
Schafer, J. A., Huebner, B. M., & Bynum, T. S. (2006). Fear of crime and criminal victimization: Gender-based contrasts. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(3), 285–301.
Selner-O’Hagan, M. B., Kindlon, D. J., & Buka, S. L. (1998). Assessing exposure to violence in urban youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(2), 215–224.
Shippee, N. D. (2012). Victimization, fear of crime, and perceived risk: Testing a vulnerability model of personal control. Sociological Perspectives, 55(1), 117–140.
Skogan, W. (2015). Disorder and decline: The state of research. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(4), 464–485. doi:10.1177/0022427815577836.
Skogan, W. G., & Maxfield, M. G. (1981). Coping with crime: Individual and neighborhood reactions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Stafford, M., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. (2007). Association between fear of crime and mental health and physical functioning. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 2076–2081.
Stein, R. E. (2014). Neighborhood residents’ fear of crime: A tale of three cities. Sociological Focus, 47(2), 121–139.
Sulemana, I. (2014). The effect of fear of crime and crime victimization on subjective well-being in Africa. Social Indicators Research, 121(3), 849–872.
Torche, F., & Villarreal, A. (2014). Prenatal exposure to violence and birth weight in Mexico: Selectivity, exposure, and behavioral responses. American Sociological Review, 79(5), 966–992.
Tseloni, A., & Zarafonitou, C. (2008). Fear of crime and victimization: A multivariate multilevel analysis of competing measurements. European Journal of Criminology, 5(4), 387–409.
UN. (2010). Manual on victimization surveys. Geneva: United Nations.
UNODOC. (2014). Global study on homicide 2013. Trends, context, Data. United Nations: Data. Viena.
Ursano, R. J., McKibben, J. B., Reissman, D., Liu, X., Wang, L., et al. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder and community collective efficacy following the 2004 Florida Hurricanes. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e88467. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088467.
Vanderveen, G. (2006). Interpreting fear, crime, risk, and unsafety. The Hague: Eleven International Publishing.
Vieno, A., Roccato, M., & Russo, S. (2013). Is fear of crime mainly social and economic insecurity in disguise? A multilevel multinational analysis. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 23(6), 519–535.
Vilalta, C. J. (2012). Fear of crime and home security systems. Police Practice and Research, 13(1), 4–14.
Vilalta, C. J. (2013a). Anomia institucional, espacialidad y temporalidad en las muertes asociadas a la lucha contra la delincuencia organizada en México. Estudios Mexicanos, 29(1), 280–319.
Vilalta, C. J. (2013b). Determinant factors in the perception of crime related insecurity in Mexico. Working Paper Series No. IDB-WP-381. Inter-American Development Bank. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=37663745. Accessed 17 May 2015.
Vilalta, C. (2014a). How did things get so bad so quickly? An assessment of the initial conditions of the war against organized crime in Mexico. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 20(1), 137–161.
Vilalta, C. J. (2014b). Does the Mexican war on organized crime mediate the impact of fear of crime on daily routines? Crime & Delinquency,. doi:10.1177/0011128714541208.
Villarreal, A., & Silva, B. (2006). Social cohesion, criminal victimization and perceived risk of crime in Brazilian neighborhoods. Social Forces, 84(3), 1725–1753.
Warr, M., & Ellison, C. G. (2000). Rethinking social reactions to crime: Personal and altruistic fear in family households. American Journal of Sociology, 106(3), 551–578.
Wickes, R., et al. (2013). Collective efficacy as a task specific process: Examining the relationship between social ties, neighborhood cohesion and the capacity to respond to violence, delinquency and civic problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52(1–2), 115–127.
Wilkinson, R. (2006). Why is violence more common where inequality is greater? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036(1), 1–12.
Wills-Herrera, E., Orozco, L. E., Forero-Pineda, C., Pardo, O., & Andonova, V. (2011). The relationship between perceptions of insecurity, social capital and subjective well-being: Empirical evidences from areas of rural conflict in Colombia. Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(1), 88–96.
World Bank (2015). Mexico overview. World Bank website. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mexico/overview. Accessed 17 May 2015.
World Health Organization. (2015). Global status report on violence prevention 2014. Geneva: World Health Publications.
Wyant, B. R. (2008). Multilevel impacts of perceived incivilities and perceptions of crime risk on fear of crime: Isolating endogenous impacts. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45(1), 39–64.
Zanin, L., Radice, R., & Marra, G. (2012). Estimating the effect of perceived risk of crime on social trust in the presence of endogeneity bias. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 523–547. doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0160-3.
Zdun, S. (2011). Difficulties measuring and controlling Homicide in Rio de Janeiro. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 5(1), 188–199.
Zhao, J. S., Lawton, B., & Longmire, D. (2015). An examination of the micro-level crime-fear of crime link. Crime & Delinquency, 61(1), 19–44.